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From Swastika to Jim Crow


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Download pdf of FROM SWASTIKA TO JIM CROW Discussion Guide (Get Acrobat Reader)
Created by the ADL, the Discussion Guide features background information and thought-provoking discussion questions for facilitators, educators or anyone interested in taking the topic further.


Amistad Research Center
Located on the Tulane University campus, the Amistad Research Center is a manuscript library for the study of race relations, ethnic history and culture in the U.S.

Anti-Defamation League
With a mission "to stop the defamation of the Jewish people and to secure justice and fair treatment to all people alike," the ADL fights anti-Semitism and bigotry and serves as a resource for the general public, government, media and law enforcement.

Civil Rights Timeline
Timeline of the Civil Rights movement from 1954-1968 features information on the key players and rulings.

Diversity Timeline
An overview of segregation and integration, cultural and gender diversity in American history from the 1600s through 1996.

Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Links for Historically Black Colleges and Universities arranged by state and provided by Urban Education Web, a resource funded by the U.S. Department of Education.

Moorland-Spingarn Research Center
MSRC is recognized as one of the most comprehensive repositories for the documentation of the history and culture of people of African descent. As one of Howard University's major research facilities, the Center collects, preserves, and makes available for research a wide range of resources chronicling the Black experience.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
The NAACP is a civil rights organization created to eliminate race prejudice and ensure the political, educational, social and economic equality of minority group citizens in the United States. The organization seeks to remove racial discrimination barriers by seeking the enactment and enforcement of federal, state and local laws securing civil rights, and informing the public of the adverse effects of racial discrimination.

National Urban League
The Urban League is the United States' oldest and largest community-based movement devoted to empowering African Americans to enter the economic and social mainstream. The mission is to enable African Americans to secure economic self-reliance, parity and power, and civil rights through education and youth, economic self-sufficiency and racial inclusion.

Operation Understanding
Committed to rebuilding the relationship between Blacks and Jews, Operation Understanding's youth education program aims to "educate a generation of Blacks and Jews who will know what it's like to have an alliance based on mutual respect, and who will work to eradicate racism, anti-Semitism and all forms of discrimination."

The Schomberg Center for Research
The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture is a national research library devoted to collecting, preserving and providing access to resources documenting the experiences of peoples of African descent throughout the world.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference
The SCLC is an inter-faith, advocacy movement organized following the 1957 Montgomery bus boycott by Reverend Martin Luther King among others. The SCLC is committed to non-violent action to achieve social, economic and political justice.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
The USHMM's searchable Web site includes information about the museum as well as curriculum for teachers and students. Highlights include the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, Collections and Archives (documents, photographs, videos and oral histories) and the Committee on Conscience created to alert and stimulate worldwide action to halt acts of genocide or related crimes against humanity today.

Selected Bibliography on the Black and Jewish Relationship

Baldwin, J. "Negroes are Anti-Semitic Because they are Anti-White." New York Times Magazine (April 9, 1967)

Berman, Paul. Blacks and Jews: Alliances and Arguments, ed. Paul Berman. New York: Delacorte (1994)

Bobo, L. "Group Conflict, Prejudice, and the Paradox of Contemporary Racial Attitudes." In P. A. Katz & D. A. Taylor (Eds.), Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy (pp. 85-114). New York: Plenum Press (1988)

Cherry, R. "Middleman Minority Theories: Their Implication for Black-Jewish Relations." Journal of Ethnic Studies, 17, 117-138 (1990)

Friedman, Murray. What Went Wrong? The Creation and Collapse of the Black-Jewish Alliance. New York: Free Press (1995)

Gates, Henry Louis. "The Uses of Anti-Semitism." In Blacks and Jews: Alliances and Arguments, ed. Paul Berman, pp. 217-228. New York: Delacorte (1994)

Hacker, Andrew. Two Nations: Black and White Separate, Hostile and Unequal. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons (1992)

Jolkovsky, Binyamin. "Want a Quote?" Forward, February 14, pp. 1,12 (1997)

Kaufman, J. Broken Alliance: The Turbulent Times Between Blacks and Jews in America. New York: Charles Scribners Sons (1988)

Laurence, T. Jews, Blacks, and Group Autonomy. Social Theory and Practice, 14, 55- 69 (1988)

Lerner, Michael and Cornel West. Jews and Blacks: Let the Healing Begin. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons (1995)

Locke, Hubert. The Black Anti-Semitism Controversy: Protestant Views and Perspectives (1994) Selingsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University. Pogrebin, Letty Cottin.

Rubin, Gary. "How Should We Think About Black Antisemitism?" In Antisemitism in America Today: Outspoken Experts Explode the Myths, ed. Jerome Chanes, pp. 150-170. New York: Carol Publishing Group (1995)

Shapiro, Edward S. "Blacks and Jews Entangled." FIRST THINGS, the Journal of Religion and Public Life. (August/September 1994)

"Blacks and Jews: Different Kinds of Survival." In Bridges and Boundaries: African Americans and American Jews, ed. Jack Salzman, Adina Back, and Gretchen Sorin, pp. 132-135. New York: George Braziller (1992)

Selected Bibliography on the time period depicted in the film

Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know. Little, Brown and Company, (1993)

Boyers, Robert, ed. The Legacy of the German Refugee Intellectuals. Schocken Books (1972)

Bullock, Henry Allen. A History of Negro Education in the South. Harvard University Press (1967)

Diner, Hasia. In the Almost Promised Land: American Jews and Blacks, 1915-1935. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press (1995 edition)

Edgcomb, Gabrielle Simon. From Swastika to Jim Crow. Krieger Publishing Company (1993)

Franklin, John Hope and Alfred A. Moss, Jr., From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans. 8th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill (2000)

Myrdal, Gunnar. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1944. (1990 editions)

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