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1883

U.S. Supreme Court overturns the Civil Rights Act of 1875.

1886

Colored Farmers' National Alliance and Cooperative Union is formed and at times works closely with the Southern Farmers' Alliance (later called the National Farmers' Alliance). By 1891 the Colored Farmers' National Alliance (CFNA) claims more than a million members in twelve state organizations. However, when the (CFNA) proposes to call a general strike of black cotton pickers, the National Farmers' Alliance leadership opposes the strike, arguing that blacks were attempting to better themselves at the expense of whites.

1888

First bank administered by blacks formed in Richmond, VA.

1890

Blacks own 120,738 farms.

1892

Booker T. Washington issues first call for a conference of farmers in Tuskegee.

1896

Supreme Court rules in Plessy v. Ferguson that "separate but equal" facilities are constitutional, a decision that reinforces segregationist policies of the South.

1900

Bill Mathis marries Viccie Mathis; they have 14 children.

Bill Mathis sharecrops in Marion and Dooly County, Georgia.


Within a two-year period, there are 214 lynchings.


1904

Fred Mathis, Charlene's grandfather, is born.

1910

Blacks own 218,972 farms accumulating an estimated 15 million acres of land. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded with Dr. W. E. B. DuBois as part of its leadership.

1911

Supreme Court rules against the labor conditions of the Black Codes in Bailey v. Alabama.

1914

Approximately 55 black banks have been organized.


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