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Immigrants and Refugees (general)

American Civil Liberties Union
This part of the ACLU site is dedicated to immigrants' rights issues, including the ACLU's criticism of the 1996 U.S. immigration laws.

Immigrants Support Network (ISN)
This site provides resources for immigrants involved in acquiring permanent residency in United States through employment channels. The ISN mission states that they work within the guidelines of U.S. immigration policy to facilitate employment-based immigration.

Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service (LIRS)
LIRS speaks out for just and humane solutions to migration crises and their root causes, both national and international; works with Lutherans and others to turn solutions into reality; and encourages citizens to take part in shaping just and fair public policies, practices and laws.

Migration and Refugee Services, National Conference of Catholic Bishops (MRS)
MRS is an office of the U.S. Catholic Conference, representing the National Conference of Catholic Bishops. It advocates in national and international forums to promote the human dignity of immigrants, refugees and people on the move in accordance with the social and moral teachings of the Catholic Church. MRS provides refugee resettlement services as well as immigration counseling, and advocacy and public education.

National Immigration Forum
A national coalition dedicated to fair immigration policies in the U.S. Works on public education providing speakers, conducting workshops and circulating accurate data.

National Immigration Law Center (NILC)
The website of a national support center whose mission is to protect and promote the rights of low-income immigrants and their family members. NILC staff specialize in immigration law, and the employment and public benefits rights of immigrants.

National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights (NNIRR)
The NNIRR is a national organization composed of local coalitions and immigrant refugee, community, religious, civil rights, and labor organizations and activists, working to promote a just immigration and refugee policy in the U.S. and to defend the rights of all immigrants and refugees, regardless of immigration status. This site includes an online archive of the Network News, the organization's quarterly newsletter, with articles about diverse issues of immigration.

New Americans
This website contains an interactive timeline and stories of immigrants, among other resources. It accompanies the PBS program New Americans, a multi-part series for public television, to be broadcast on consecutive nights during the spring of 2003.

Television Race Initiative (TRI)
In partnership with national and community-based organizations, TRI uses public television broadcasts to encourage sustained community dialogue and problem-solving around the issue of race relations.


Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL)
The site of this organization of linguistics scholars and educators presents a resource page on immigrant education. CAL is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and addressing language-related issues.

Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA)
This online version of IDRA's May 1996 newsletter addresses issues of immigrant education. IDRA is an independent, nonprofit organization that advocates the right of every child to a quality education.

National Coalition of Advocates for Students (NCAS)
The NCAS site includes an online version of the organization's newsletter, containing articles on many education issues facing immigrant children and parents. This group works to achieve equal access to quality public education for students who are most vulnerable to school failure.

National Education Association (NEA)
Composed of 2.5 million members, the NEA is the United States' oldest and largest organization committed to advancing the cause of public education. The issues section of the NEA site presents the organization's position on class-size, low-performing schools, charter schools and vouchers, as well as a summary of their position on The Debate Over English Only from 1996.

National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE)
Promoting educational excellence and equity through bilingual education, the National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) is the only national organization exclusively concerned with the education of language-minority students in American schools.

Latin Americans

League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
The League of United Latin American Citizens advances the economic condition, educational attainment, political influence, health and civil rights of the Latin American population of the United States. Among its resources, the site contains action alerts about important issues being addressed by the U.S. Congress and other organizations.

Mexican American Legal Defense Fund (MALDEF)
MALDEF is a national nonprofit organization whose mission is to protect and promote the civil rights of the more than 29 million Latinos living in the United States.

National Council of La Raza (NCLR)
The National Council of La Raza is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization established in 1968 to reduce poverty and discrimination and improve life opportunities for Hispanic Americans.


National Mobilization Against Sweatshops
This site from a grassroots group - formed by and for working people and youth of all backgrounds and communities and dedicated to fighting for fair working terms and conditions - includes basic information and myths about sweatshops, updates on conferences and campaigns, links to news articles and other resources.

Sweatshop Watch
The site of this sweatshop watchdog organization - a coalition of labor, community, civil rights, immigrant rights, women's, religious and student organizations, and individuals committed to eliminating sweatshop conditions in the global garment industry - includes news about current campaigns and governmental proposals.

Workers' Rights

A voluntary federation of America's unions, the AFL-CIO's mission is to bring social and economic justice to our nation by enabling working people to have a voice on the job, in government, in a changing global economy and in their communities. The site contains information about immigrant rights in the workers' rights section.

Coalition for the Human Rights of Immigrants (CHRI)
The site of this New York-based immigrants' rights group focuses on the way in which immigration policies serve to discourage undocumented immigrants from defending their labor rights, including the right to organize.

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
The EEOC enforces federal law prohibiting employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, gender, and disability. The site includes a reference guide for employees, as well as one for employers, about federal policies regarding discrimination in the workplace.


Yearning to Breathe Free
Presented on the Queens Library of New York website, this bibliography lists 50 works of fiction that chronicle 100 years of the immigrant experience in America.

American Dreaming: Immigrant Life on the Margins by Sarah J. Mahler. Princeton, 1995.

Beautiful Flowers of the Maquiladora: Life Histories of Women Workers in Tijuana by Norma Iglesias Prieto. University of Texas, 1997.

Health and Social Services among International Labor Migrants: A Comparative Perspective by Antonio Ugalde and Gilbert Cardenas. University of Texas, 1998.

A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America by Ronald Takaki. Little, Brown, 1993.

Immigrant America: A Portrait by Alejandro Portes and Rubin G. Rumbaut. University of California, 1996.

Latinos: A Biography of the People by Earl Shorris. Avon Books, 1994.

The Mexican Outsiders: A Community History of Marginalization and Discrimination in California by Martha Menchaca. University of Texas Press, 1995.

Network News from the National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights.

New to North America: Writings by U.S. Immigrants and their Children and Grandchildren edited by Abby Bogomolny. Burning Bush, 1997.

A People's History of the United States: 1492-Present by Howard Zinn. Harper Collins, 1995.

Shadowed Lives: Undocumented Immigrants in American Society by Leo Chavez. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1992.

The following resources were consulted to create the content for THE CITY site.


U.S. Immigration Timeline

National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights (NNIRR)

Michael Fix, Jeffrey S. Passel, et al., "Immigration and Immigrants: Setting the Record Straight," The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C., May 1994

Immigration Quiz

BRIDGE Curriculum, National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights

(1) Migration World, 1996, "Immigration to the United States in Fiscal Year 1996, " INS, April, 1997, and INS, June, 1998

(2) Poverty and Race, March/April 1995, U.S. Census Bureau, April 1998

(3) Michael Fix and Jeffrey Passel, "Immigration and Immigrants, Setting the Record Straight," The Urban Institute, 1994

(4) U.S. Department of Justice Press Release, March 10, 1998

(5) U.S. Census Bureau, April, 1998; INS Statistics, "Immigration to the Unites States in Fiscal Year 1996"; INS Statistics, April 1997; and INS Statistics, "Illegal Alien Resident Population," June 1998

(6) Wheeler and Bernstein, National Immigration Law Center, February 1997, citing Congressional Budget Office, 1996, and Fix and Zimmerman, Urban Institute, 1995

Immigration Facts

BRIDGE Curriculum Series, National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights

National Immigration Forum


Myths and Realities

Sue Feinstein, "Immigration"

Michael Fix and Jeffrey S. Passel, et al., "Immigration and Immigrants: Setting the Record Straight," Urban Institute, Washington, D.C., May 1994

Immigration Forum, "Immigrants and the Economy"

Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory

U.S. Dept. of Commerce, "We the American... Foreign Born," 1993

Educating Our Children

English First, "Failures of Bilingual Education," July 1994

Stephen Krashen, "Bilingual Education: Arguments For and (Bogus) Arguments Against," Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics, May 6, 1999

National Coalition of Advocates for Students (NCAS)

National Education Association (NEA)

Bilingual Education Glossary

"History of Bilingual Education," Rethinking Schools, Vol. 12, No. 3, Spring 1998

Houston Independent School District, "The Identification of Students Classified as Limited English Proficient (LEP): 1996-97"

Lau v. Nichols (excerpts)

National Center for Education Statistics, "1993-94 Schools and Staffing Survey: A Profile of Policies and Practices for Limited English Proficient Students: Screening Methods, Program Support, and Teacher Training," February 1997

Plyler v. Doe

Student Wisconsin Education Association

Workers' Rights

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations

David Bacon, "Immigrant Workers: The Law that Keep Them Chained," Los Angeles Weekly, October 8-14, 1999

David Bacon, "Immigration Law - Bringing Back Sweatshop Conditions" November 10, 1998

D.W. Miller, "Scholars of Immigration Focus on the Children," Chronicle of Higher Education, February 5, 1999

National Mobilization Against Sweatshops

National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights

Sweatshop Watch

Women and Immigration

Executive Summary, "Hands That Shape the World: Report on the Conditions of Immigrant Women Five Years After the Beijing Conference" and testimonies from the National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights (NNIRR)

David Bacon, "The Escape of a Domestic Worker" October 22, 1996

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