The Patarabueyes hunted with bows strengthened with extra horn and sinew around the wood. Bowstrings were made of twisted deer sinews. Clubs made of tornillo wood and shields made of bison hides were also used. The Patarabueye lived in single houses, about 30 feet square, which were built partly underground in pits.
Very few Jumanos or Patarabueyes remain today. In 1996 descendants of the Jumano filed with the Bureau of Indian Affairs for federal recognition and Native American status. It is still pending.
Casas Grandes was built about 1060 A.D., but was destroyed and abandoned by the time of Cabeza de Vaca's journey. It is located in the northern part of Chihuahua, Mexico in what is also known as Paquime. The height of its commercial success was between 1210 - 1261 A.D. For centuries it had existed as an important town on the route of the Shell Trail, which led to the Gulf of Mexico. Prized pottery made at Casas Grandes was traded from the Tropic of Cancer in the south, northwest as far as San Francisco, California and northeast into Colorado and Kansas. [more]