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USA (1889 - 1953)
Edwin Powell Hubble profoundly changed astronomers' understanding of the nature of the universe by demonstrating the existence of other galaxies besides the Milky Way. He also discovered that the degree of redshift observed in light coming from a galaxy increased in proportion to the distance of that galaxy from the Milky Way. This became known as Hubble's law, and would help establish that the universe is expanding.

Como se describe en 400 Años del Telescopio, la utilización del telescopio por Galileo en 1609 marcó un hito en la historia de la astronomía. Con su catalejo, Galileo fue capaz de ver cosas que nadie más había visto antes y de cambiar la forma en que el ser humano entendía su lugar en el universo.

Alentamos a los profesores y maestros a llevar a sus estudiantes a mirar a través del telescopio y tener esa misma experiencia de "wow" que tuvo Galileo. Sin embargo, aún sin un telescopio, puede dar a sus estudiantes uns prueba del trabajo de Galilaeo y de sus realizaciones. Animamos a que presente a sus estudiantes este film. Luego, puede realizar las siguientes actividades de clase que pueden ilustrar major los grandes descubrimientos:

  • Galileo's observations of Jupiter through his telescope showed that the giant planet had four moons orbiting around it. One of the key philosophical underpinnings of our western view of the universe at the time was that everything had to orbit the Earth. Galileo's observations of Jupiter's moons showed that they had not "gotten the memo" and had the audacity to orbit Jupiter.

    In Observing the Moons of Jupiter, students are provided with images from nine nights of observing Jupiter's moons and encouraged to measure the "month" for each moon. In this activity, students are put in the role of scientists, asking questions, evaluating observations, discussing their results with each other. (We are very grateful to Wil van der Veen and his coauthors, and the GEMS Program at the Lawrence Hall of Science, for permission to share this activity.)

  • In the previous century, Copernicus had already suggested that the Sun, and not the Earth, might be the center of motion. However, it was possible to see his suggestion merely as a mathematical tool that made figuring out celestial motions easier. Galileo was able to make a simple, direct observation which showed that the planet Venus must orbit around the Sun and not the Earth.

    In Galileo Was Right!, students use simple materials and their own bodies and movement to simulate an Earth-centered and Sun-centered system. They observe the appearance of Venus as it orbits (just as Galileo did) and draw their own conclusion about which system is right.

    Virtual Venus is a more sophisticated version of this activity, in which students gather their own telescopic views of Venus, using a robotic telescope (or their own), and are led to an even deeper understanding of how Galileo showed that the Sun must be at the center of things.




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