Convicts and their guard pause in their work, Atlanta, 1895. Courtesy of Georgia Archives Vanishing Georgia Collection.
Convicts building the street in Birmingham, 1909. Courtesy of Birmingham Public Library.
Members of a chain gang working in a pit, Macon area, ca. 1900. Courtesy Georgia Archives Vanishing Georgia Collection.
City convicts in bunks. Courtesy of Birmingham Public Library.
Bartow County State Highway prisoners. Courtesy of Getty.
Convict wagon, Birmingham. Courtesy of Birmingham Public Library.
Four convicts sometime between 1900 and 1906. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
Child convicts in field, 1903. Courtesy of Detroit Publishing Company.
Convict against tree, ca. 1890. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
John Spizack had access to photograph forced-labor camps. This photo of an unidentified man tied to a pickax shows a typical punishment for blacks living in these conditions, early 1930s. Courtesy of Harry Ransom Center University of Texas at Austin.
Overseeing the chain gang, Oglethorpe County, Georgia. Courtesy of Library of Congress.
Guard at the new Louisiana State Penitentiary holding a bull whip no longer used for management of prisoners, 1955. Courtesy of Getty.
"Angola Hoers" female prisoners were housed at Angola, along with the males. Courtesy of Fonville Winans.