• 1 Convicts and their guard pause in their work, Atlanta, 1895. Courtesy of Georgia Archives Vanishing Georgia Collection.
  • 2 Convicts building the street in Birmingham, 1909. Courtesy of Birmingham Public Library.
  • 3 Members of a chain gang working in a pit, Macon area, ca. 1900. Courtesy Georgia Archives Vanishing Georgia Collection.
  • 4 City convicts in bunks. Courtesy of Birmingham Public Library.
  • 5 Bartow County State Highway prisoners. Courtesy of Getty.
  • 6 Convict wagon, Birmingham. Courtesy of Birmingham Public Library.
  • 7 Four convicts sometime between 1900 and 1906. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
  • 8 Child convicts in field, 1903. Courtesy of Detroit Publishing Company.
  • 9 Convict against tree, ca. 1890. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
  • 10 John Spizack had access to photograph forced-labor camps. This photo of an unidentified man tied to a pickax shows a typical punishment for blacks living in these conditions, early 1930s. Courtesy of Harry Ransom Center University of Texas at Austin.
  • 11 Overseeing the chain gang, Oglethorpe County, Georgia. Courtesy of Library of Congress.
  • 12 Guard at the new Louisiana State Penitentiary holding a bull whip no longer used for management of prisoners, 1955. Courtesy of Getty.
  • 13 "Angola Hoers" female prisoners were housed at Angola, along with the males. Courtesy of Fonville Winans.

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