It took much more than a clever engineer and a relentless promoter to build the Golden Gate Bridge. The bridge effort enlisted men by the hundreds to do the filthy, back-breaking, and routinely dangerous labor.
Workers built the bridge during the worst depression of the 20th century -- years when Americans stood in breadlines and 1 in 4 were unemployed. The men were happy to be on the bridge and to have a job -- any job. Required to use men from local unions, contractors had to contend with the fact that few ironworkers lived in San Francisco at the time. Word spread fast that jobs were available. "When they were asked, 'Listen, have you ever been an ironworker?'" remembered a worker's son, Skip Lambert, "[They'd say] 'Yeah, I was born an ironworker. I been an ironworker all my life.'"
Farmers and Taxicab Drivers
Hiring was handled entirely through the ironworkers' union, local 377. Out-of-town job seekers bought addresses and Social Security numbers from city residents in order to meet the residence requirements. Workers came from all different backgrounds and occupations. Former farmers, clerks, and taxicab drivers became high steel men. Before taking a job as an ironworker on the bridge, 25-year-old Slim Lambert had been a cowboy, a stevedore, and a lumberjack.
When construction started, in January 1933, union wages ranged from $4 to $11 per day (about $45 to $125 per day in 2004 dollars). Workers clocked in when they reached their work sites -- the 30- to 40-minute climb was on their own time. Despite the obvious risks, a job on the bridge was considered a plum. Cable supervisor Charles Kring recalled, "there was always somebody waiting at the base of the tower for someone to fall off so they'd get a job."
The first workers excavated three and a quarter million cubic feet of dirt and poured seemingly endless amounts of concrete for the bridge's two anchorages. Twelve stories high, the anchorages were designed to secure 63 million pounds -- twice the pull of the bridge's main cables. Workers stood in the anchorage pit while a long tube called an "elephant trunk" delivered wet concrete down to their level. The men labored to mix the concrete as it was poured, to remove any air pockets.
The first 745-foot tower began to rise on the Marin shore in November 1933. Prefabricated sections were fit into place and then joined together by four-man rivet gangs. The heater was the boss; he brought rivets to the right temperature on a small forge, then tossed them to catchers with metal cans. "They went 'Zing' just like a bullet... and you best catch it, and take it out, and you had to put it in fast," recalled ironworker Walter Vestnys. Once both towers were complete, in June 1935, workers built catwalks and started spinning the cables. Roadway work would not begin until June 1936.
Nerves of Steel
Workers had to be fearless to climb the high steel in the first place, but the local weather called for truly superhuman nerve. "The fog would come in and go out, come in, go out, all day long," described Vestyns. "When it's wet, the iron is just like ice... pretty chancy when you have to walk around so much." Worker's son Skip Lambert described the windy conditions, saying, "a gust could come along and literally blow you right off."
The Halfway to Hell Club
Joseph Strauss implemented safety innovations, including a safety net cantilevered out underneath the entire bridge during roadway construction. Nineteen men would fall into it, cheating death and proclaiming themselves the Halfway to Hell Club. The net boosted workers' morale and became an attraction for showboats and club wannabes, who had to be ordered not to jump into it on purpose.
The bridge's underwater workers faced some of the toughest challenges. Divers were employed to set explosives and blast away rock for seating the south tower's supports. Each dive had to take place in a narrow window of time -- as little as an hour and 15 minutes -- due to treacherous tidal currents. "If you go out to the bridge site," comments civil engineer Mark Ketchum, "you can see the waves crashing over the south shore. And those waves are only the surface manifestation of a big energy pump underneath the water." Sometimes, divers had to be recalled before they were ready to resurface, and decompression sickness could set in.
Building a Landmark
Workers completed the Golden Gate Bridge in 1937. When the immediate landmark opened to the public, few of the men who had built it attended the celebration. Most of them figured they had seen enough of the structure. But one of the workers who went was Harold McClain. "I was in the parade, and I walked across the bridge," he said. "It was never just a job to me. I loved the work."
The remarkable story of mid-19th century ingenuity and perseverance during the laying of the transatlantic telegraph cable between North America and Europe.
The grave truth behind modern forensics was discovered in 1920s New York.
Robert Moses fueled some of the most ambitious -- and controversial -- public works projects ever conceived.
A brilliant scientist, Oppenheimer was tasked with the development of the atomic bomb during World War II.
It was the deadliest workplace accident in New York City’s history.
The U.S. and the Soviet Union race to build the hydrogen bomb during the Cold War, thus beginning the nuclear arms race.
The worst epidemic in American history killed over 600,000 Americans during World War I.
The Pennsylvania Railroad Company accomplished an enormous engineering feat, but destroyed a great architectural monument.