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Origins of Humankind Source Credits

Introduction Images
Australopithecus afarensis - Hadar skull with mandible
Fossil credit: National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo habilis - KNM-ER 1813
Fossil credit: National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo sapiens - Cro-Magnon I
Fossil credit: Original housed in Musee de l'Homme, Paris
Copyright protection notice: © 1994 David L. Brill

Homo heidelbergensis - Mauer mandible
Fossil credit: Original housed in Geologisch-Palaontologisches
Institut der Universitat, Heidelberg
Copyright protection notice: © 1994 David L. Brill

Background Images
Vegetation
Digital Imagery © copyright 2001 PhotoDisc, Inc.

Trees
Digital Imagery © copyright 2001 PhotoDisc, Inc.

Savanna
Digital Imagery © copyright 2001 PhotoDisc, Inc.

Serengeti
Digital Imagery © copyright 2001 PhotoDisc, Inc.

Glacier
Digital Imagery © copyright 2001 PhotoDisc, Inc.

Timeline Entries

FOSSILS

Orrorin tugenensis - Partial jaw
Fossil credit: The Community Museums of Kenya
Photo credit: © Dr. M. Pickford

Orrorin tugenensis - Partial femur *
Fossil credit: The Community Museums of Kenya
Photo credit: © Dr. M. Pickford

Ardipithecus ramidus - ARA-VP-1/129
Fossil credit: National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright protection notice: © 1994 Tim D. White / Brill Atlanta

Australopithecus anamensis - KP 29285
Photo credit: © National Museums of Kenya

Australopithecus anamensis - KP 29281
Photo credit: © National Museums of Kenya

Australopithecus afarensis - Hadar skull with mandible
Fossil credit: National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Australopithecus afarensis - Laetoli footprints
© John Reader/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Australopithecus afarensis - AL 129-1 *
© Donald Johanson/Institute of Human Origins

Australopithecus afarensis - Lucy
Fossil credit: National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Kenyanthropus platyops - Flat-faced Man *
Photo credit: © National Museums of Kenya

Australopithecus africanus - STS 71
Fossil credit: Transvaal Museum, Pretoria
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Australopithecus africanus - STS 14 *
© John Reader/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Australopithecus africanus - Taung Child
Fossil credit: Medical School, University of the Witwatersrand
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Australopithecus africanus - Mrs. Ples
Fossil credit: Transvaal Museum, Pretoria
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Australopithecus aethiopicus - The Black Skull (frontal)
Fossil credit: National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Copyright protection notice: © 1995 David L. Brill

Australopithecus aethiopicus - The Black Skull (3/4-view)
Fossil credit: National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Copyright protection notice: © 1995 David L. Brill

Australopithecus garhi - BOU-VP-12/130 (frontal)
Fossil credit: Original housed in National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright protection notice: © 1999 David L. Brill

Australopithecus garhi - BOU-VP-12/130 (3/4-view)
Fossil credit: Original housed in National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright protection notice: © 1999 David L. Brill

Australopithecus robustus - SK 48
Fossil credit: Transvaal Museum, Pretoria
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Australopithecus robustus - TM 1517
Courtesy: Human Origins Program at the Smithsonian Institution

Australopithecus robustus - Eurydice *
Courtesy Dr. Andre Keyser and Colleagues, University of the Witwatersrand. Image provided by The South African Journal of Science, which formally announced the discovery.

Australopithecus boisei - KNM-ER 406
Fossil credit: National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Australopithecus boisei - Zinjanthropus
Fossil credit: National Museum of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Australopithecus boisei - Konso Skull
Fossil credit: National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright protection notice: © 1997 Gen Suwa \ Brill Atlanta

Homo habilis - KNM-ER 1813
Fossil credit: National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo habilis - KNM-ER 1470
Fossil credit: National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Copyright protection notice: © 1994 David L. Brill

Homo habilis - OH 24
Artifact credit: National Museum of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam
Copyright protection notice: © 1997 David L. Brill

Homo habilis - Dik-dik Hominid *
Photo credit: © Donald Johanson/Institute of Human Origins

Homo habilis - Olduvai George
Photograph by Dr. Jeffrey H. Schwartz, copyright © 2001.
All rights reserved. Reproduced on-line with permission.
Courtesy of The National Museum of Tanzania

Homo erectus - KNM-ER 3733
Artifact credit: American Museum of Natural History
Copyright protection notice: © 1994 David L. Brill

Homo erectus - Dmanisi 2282
Photograph by Dr. Jeffrey H. Schwartz, copyright © 2001.
All rights reserved. Reproduced on-line with permission.
Courtesy of The State Museum of Georgia

Homo erectus - Turkana Boy
Fossil credit: National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo erectus - Java Man *
Photograph by Dr. Jeffrey H. Schwartz, copyright © 2001.
All rights reserved. Reproduced on-line with permission.
Courtesy of The Senckenburg Museum

Homo erectus - Tautavel Man
Fossil credit: Musee de l'Homme, Paris
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo erectus - Peking Man
Fossil credit: American Museum of Natural History
Copyright protection notice: © 1996 David L. Brill

Homo erectus - Petralona 1 (3/4-view)
Fossil credit: Paleontological Museum, University of Thessaloniki
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo heidelbergensis - Petralona 1 (frontal)
Fossil credit: Paleontological Museum, University of Thessaloniki
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo heidelbergensis - Mauer mandible
Fossil credit: Original housed in Geologisch-Palaontologisches
Institut der Universitat, Heidelberg
Copyright protection notice: © 1994 David L. Brill

Homo heidelbergensis - Tautavel Man
Fossil credit: Musee de l'Homme, Paris
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo heidelbergensis - Petralona 1 (3/4-view)
Fossil credit: Paleontological Museum, University of Thessaloniki
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo heidelbergensis - Kabwe Man
Fossil credit: Original housed in British Museum
Copyright protection notice: © 1995 David L. Brill

Homo neanderthalensis - La Ferrassie I
Fossil credit: Musee de l'Homme, Paris
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo neanderthalensis - Shanidar 1
Fossil credit: Original housed in Iraq Museum, Baghdad
Copyright protection notice: © 1996 David L. Brill

Homo neanderthalensis - (Learn More) - Spy 1 *
Photograph by Dr. Jeffrey H. Schwartz, copyright 2001.
All rights reserved. Reproduced on-line with permission.
The Spy remains reside in the Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles, Brussels, by courtesy of the estate and family of Max Lohest (1857-1926).

Homo neanderthalensis - Old Man *
Courtesy: Human Origins Program at the Smithsonian Institution

Homo neanderthalensis - Saint-Cesaire Neanderthal
Fossil credit: Laboratoire d'Anthropologie, Universite de Bordeaux I
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo sapiens - Cro-Magnon I (reconstruction)
Fossil credit: Original housed in Musee de l'Homme, Paris
Copyright protection notice: © 1994 David L. Brill

Homo sapiens - (Learn More) - Spy 1 Photo credit: © Günter Bräuer *

Homo sapiens - Qafzeh IX
Fossil credit: Israel Antiquities Authority, Rockefeller Museum
Copyright protection notice: © 1995 David L. Brill
protection notice: © 1994 David L. Brill

Homo sapiens - Klasies River mouth
Photograph by Dr. Jeffrey H. Schwartz, copyright © 2001.
All rights reserved. Reproduced on-line with permission.
Courtesy of The South Africa Museum

Homo sapiens - Cro-Magnon I
Courtesy: Human Origins Program at the Smithsonian Institution

Cultural Artifacts

Australopithecus garhi - Earliest Stone Tools
Artifact credit: National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright protection notice: © 1999 David L. Brill

Australopithecus robustus - Bone Digging Tools
Artifact credit: Transvaal Museum, Pretoria
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo habilis - Oldowan Stone Tools
Artifact credit: National Museum of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo erectus - Acheulean Stone Tools
Artifact credit: Institut du Quaternaire, Batiment de Geologie,
Universite de Bordeaux I
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo heidelbergensis - Acheulean Stone Tools
Artifact credit: Institut du Quaternaire, Batiment de Geologie,
Universite de Bordeaux I
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo heidelbergensis - Mousterian Stone Tools
Artifact credit: Institut du Quaternaire, Batiment de Geologie,
Universite de Bordeaux I
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo neanderthalensis - Mousterian Stone Tools
Artifact credit: Institut du Quaternaire, Batiment de Geologie,
Universite de Bordeaux I
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo neanderthalensis - Burial of the Dead
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo sapiens - Aurignacian Stone Tools
Artifact credit: Musee National de Prehistoire, Les Eyzies de Tayac
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 by David L. Brill

Homo sapiens - Magdalenian Stone Tools
Artifact credit: Institut du Quaternaire, Batiment de Geologie, Universite de Bordeaux I
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo sapiens - Cro-Magnon Culture *
Courtesy, The Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte und Archäologie des Mittelalters, Abteilung Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie.

Homo sapiens - Chauvet Cave Art *
Courtesy: French Ministry of Culture and Communication

Homo sapiens - Altamira Cave Paintings
Courtesy: Scala/Art Resource, New York


Species Gallery

Orrorin tugenensis - Partial jaw
Fossil credit: The Community Museums of Kenya
Photo credit: © Dr. M. Pickford

Ardipithecus ramidus - ARA-VP-1/129
Fossil credit: National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright protection notice: © 1994 Tim D. White / Brill Atlanta

Australopithecus anamensis - KP 29285
Photo credit: © National Museums of Kenyal

Australopithecus afarensis - Hadar skull with mandible
Fossil credit: National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Kenyanthropus platyops - Flat-faced Man
Photo credit: © National Museums of Kenya

Australopithecus africanus - STS 71
Fossil credit: Transvaal Museum, Pretoria
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Australopithecus aethiopicus - The Black Skull (frontal)
Fossil credit: National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Copyright protection notice: © 1995 David L. Brill

Australopithecus garhi - BOU-VP-12/130 (frontal)
Fossil credit: Original housed in National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright protection notice: © 1999 David L. Brill

Australopithecus boisei - KNM-ER 406
Fossil credit: National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo habilis - KNM-ER 1813
Fossil credit: National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo erectus - KNM 3733
Artifact Credit: Original Housed in National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi
Copyright Protection Notice: © 1994 David L. Brill

Australopithecus robustus - SK 48
Fossil credit: Transvaal Museum, Pretoria
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo heidelbergensis - Petralona 1 (frontal)
Fossil credit: Paleontological Museum, University of Thessaloniki
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo neanderthalensis - La Ferrassie I
Fossil credit: Musee de l'Homme, Paris
Copyright protection notice: © 1985 David L. Brill

Homo sapiens - Cro-Magnon I
Fossil credit: Original housed in Musee de l'Homme, Paris
Copyright protection notice: © 1994 David L. Brill

* Image used in both low and high-bandwidth versions.
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