Dossier | The Sanctioned 17: EU's New Roster of Iran Human Rights Violators
25 Mar 2012 06:28
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[ dossier ] On Saturday, the European Union published the names of 17 officials of the Islamic Republic of Iran whom the E.U. asserts are "responsible for serious human rights violations" and is thus subjecting to travel bans and asset freezes -- names added to a roster of 61 Iranian officials previously so sanctioned (see here and here). The new list of 17 includes several prominent figures, most notably Sadegh Larijani -- chief of the Islamic Republic's judiciary and brother to Majles (parliament) Speaker Ali Larijani -- and Ali Saeedi Shahroudi -- Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's representative to the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. The E.U. now also explicitly bars the "s[ale], supply, transfer, or export, directly or indirectly [of] equipment, technology or software [that] competent authorities of the Member States [...] have reasonable grounds to determine [...] would be used for monitoring or interception, by Iran's government, public bodies, corporations and agencies or any person or entity acting on their behalf or at their direction, of internet or telephone communications in Iran." (For more on that and related issues, see here.)
Few, if any, of the officials named are known to have traveled to E.U. countries or have assets under E.U. jurisdiction, so the action directed against them is far more symbolic than practical in immediate effect. A diplomatic source knowledgable about the move tells Tehran Bureau that its "main purpose...is 'naming and shaming' of individuals close to the regime who are responsible for grave human rights violations...thereby showing the Iranian people that [the] E.U. is following this issue closely, and exposing these people who are -- for a large part of them -- not publicly known."
The following text comes directly from the Official Journal of the European Union. It has been formatted (and, in the case of a few names, simply corrected or completed) to meet Tehran Bureau transliteration norms and house style; editorial glosses are presented in square brackets. The images and links, as available, were selected by Tehran Bureau. -- TB Senior Editor Dan Geist
Elahi, Mousa Khalil Prosecutor of Tabriz. Responsible for directing grave human rights violations of the right to due process.
Farhadi, Ali Prosecutor of Karaj. Responsible for grave violation of human rights in demanding the death sentence for a juvenile.
Jafari, Reza Head of special prosecution of cyber crime. In charge of arrests, detentions, and prosecutions of bloggers and journalists.
Kazemi, Toraj Colonel of the technology and communications police, he recently announced a campaign for the recruitment of government hackers in order to achieve better control of information on the Internet and attack "dangerous" sites.
Larijani, Sadegh Head of the judiciary. The head of the judiciary is required to consent to and sign off every ghisas (retribution), hodoud (crimes against God), and tazirat (crimes against the state) punishment. This includes sentences attracting the death penalty, floggings, and amputations. In this regard, he has personally signed off numerous death penalty sentences, contravening international standards, including stoning (16 people are currently under stoning sentence), executions by suspension strangulation, execution of juveniles, and public executions such as those where prisoners have been hung from bridges in front of crowds of thousands. He has also permitted corporal punishment sentences such as amputations and the dripping of acid into the eyes of the convicted. Since Sadegh Larijani took office, arbitrary arrests of political prisoners, human rights defenders, and minorities have increased markedly. Executions have also increased sharply since 2009. Sadegh Larijani also bears responsibility for systemic failures in the Iranian judicial process to respect the right to a fair trial.
Mirhejazi, Ali Deputy chief of the Supreme Leader's office and head of security. Part of the Supreme Leader's inner circle, responsible for planning the suppression of protests which has been implemented since 2009.
Mortazavi, Seyyed Solat Deputy interior minister for political affairs. Responsible for directing repression of persons who speak up in defense of their legitimate rights, including freedom of expression.
Ramezani, Gholam Hossein Commander of IRGC [Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps] intelligence. Responsible for grave human rights violation of persons who speak up in defense of their legitimate rights, including freedom of expression. Heads department responsible for the arrest and torture of bloggers/journalists.
Ramin, Mohammad Ali Main figure responsible for censorship as vice minister in charge of the press up to December 2010, he was directly responsible for the closure of many reformi[st] newspapers (Etemad, Etemad-e Melli, Shargh, etc.), closure of the Independent Press Syndicate, and the intimidation and arrest of journalists.
Reshteh Ahmadi, Bahram Deputy prosecutor in Tehran. Runs Evin [Prison] prosecution center. Responsible for the denial of rights, including visits and other prisoner's rights, to human rights defenders and political prisoners.
Rezvani, Gholam Ali Deputy governor of Rasht. Responsible for grave violations of the right to due process.
Rezvan Manesh, Ali Prosecutor. Responsible for grave violation of human rights in demanding the death sentence for a juvenile.
Sadeghi, Mohammad Colonel and deputy [commander] of IRGC technical and cyber intelligence. Responsible for the arrests and torture of bloggers/journalists.
Saeedi Shahroudi, Ali Representative of the Guide [i.e., Supreme Leader] for the Pasdaran [i.e., Revolutionary Guards] since 1995 after spending his whole career within the institution of the military, and specifically in the Pasdaran intelligence service. This official role makes him the key figure in the transmission of orders emanating from the Office of the Guide to the Pasdaran's repression apparatus.
Sharifi, Malek Ajdar Head of the judiciary in East Azerbaijan. Responsible for grave violations of the right to due process.
Taghipour, Reza Minister for information and communications. As minister for information, he is one of the top officials in charge of censorship and control of Internet activities and also all types of communications (notably mobile phones). During interrogations of political detainees, the interrogators make use of the detainees' personal data, mail, and communications. On several occasions following the last presidential election and during street demonstrations, mobile lines and text messaging were blocked, satellite TV channels were jammed, and the Internet locally suspended or at least slowed down.
Zarghami, Ezatollah As head of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB), he is responsible for all programming decisions. IRIB has broadcast forced confessions of detainees and a series of "show trials" in August 2009 and December 2011. These constitute a clear violation of international provisions on fair trial and the right to due process.
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