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African American art emerges and black artists, including Robert Scott Duncanson, contribute to the developing American art tradition.

Pre-Civil War
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Robert Scott Duncanson
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Robert Duncanson
Blue Hole, Little Miami River (1851)

Related Artist:
Robert Scott Duncanson

For African American artists in the 19th century, the only means to artistic acceptance and success required adherence to European aesthetics and a rejection of their personal experiences. The African American artists who achieved success and recognition were indebted to abolitionists and abolitionist organizations, which provided commissions and scholarships to study abroad in Rome or Paris. Despite having to work within the confines of European traditions, a number of African American artists, such as Robert Scott Duncanson, were able to make contributions to the emerging American tradition of landscape painting.
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