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Talladega College







Timeline: Building Democracy (1866 - 1955)
Early Days & Slavery A segregated school in the early 1900s.
Building Democracy
Civil Rights Era
Modern Times

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1400
Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, which confers citizenship on African Americans and grants them equal rights with whites.

1400
The white supremacist organization known as the Ku Klux Klan is founded in Tennessee.

NPR Learn More: KKK
From All Things Considered
1400
Five all-black colleges are founded: Howard University, Morgan State College, Talladega College, St. Augustine's College, and Johnson C. Smith College. There will be more than 100 predominantly black colleges by the middle of the next century.

NPR Learn More: The Role of HBCUs
From The Tavis Smiley Show
1400
Sculptor Edmonia Lewis sculpts her famous work "Forever Free," which shows an African American couple as they hear that slavery has ended.

PBS Learn More: Edmonia Lewis: Testament to Bravery
From The Online NewsHour

1400
P.B.S. Pinchback, the first African American state governor (of Louisiana), is elected to the House of Representatives; the election is disputed. He will be elected to the U.S. Senate in 1873, with the election again disputed.

1400
Armed African Americans surround the county seat in Colfax, Louisiana, fearing whites will illegally overthrow the Republican government. About 300 African Americans are killed in the so-called Colfax Massacre.

1400
The Freedman's Savings and Trust Co., a bank for American-Africans which many thought was guaranteed by the U.S. government, fails and leaves a legacy of mistrust of white-run institutions.

NPR Learn More: Genealogical Research Using the Freedman's Bank
From All Things Considered
1400
Thousands of African Americans migrate from the South to the West to escape exploitation and oppression. Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, a former slave, is a leader of this "Exodus of '79."

PBS Learn More: Profile of "Pap" Singleton
From New Perspectives on the West

1400
Henry O. Flipper is the first African American to graduate from West Point. In 1889, he will write a book about his experiences, The Colored Cadet at West Point.

1400
Tennessee passes the first of the "Jim Crow" segregation laws, segregating state railroads. Other Southern states pass similar laws over the next 15 years.

NPR Learn More: Sound Portrait of Segregation
From The Tavis Smiley Show
1400
The Tuskegee Institute, an historic black university, is founded in Alabama to train African Americans as teachers and in agriculture and industry. Booker T. Washington is the first president.

1400
Black historian George Washington Williams publishes his History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880, the first comprehensive and objective history of African Americans.

1400
Mississippi enacts a poll tax, which most African Americans cannot afford to pay, to try to keep blacks from voting.

1400
Timothy Thomas Fortune, a freed slave and journalist, founds the National Afro-American League, considered a forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

1400
African American journalist Ida B. Wells begins a crusade to investigate the lynchings of African Americans after three of her friends are lynched in Tennessee.

NPR Learn More: Book Discussion: "The Lynching of Black America"
From Fresh Air
1400
African American physician Daniel Hale Williams performs the world's first successful open-heart surgery.

1400
African American intellectual spokesman Booker T. Washington gives his controversial "Atlanta Compromise" speech at the Cotton Exposition in Georgia, saying that African Americans should focus on economic advancement rather than political change.

PBS Learn More: Profile of Booker T. Washington
From American Experience: Marcus Garvey

1400
In Plessy v. Ferguson, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that segregated, or "separate but equal," public facilities for whites and blackAfrican-AmericanAfrican Americans are legal. The ruling stands until 1954.



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