Five things happened to our fathers on the Seventeenth
of Tammuz and five on the Ninth of Av.
On the Seventeenth of Tammuz: the
tablets [of the Ten Commandments] were broken, the
daily offering ceased, the city [walls of Jerusalem]
were breached, Apostomus
burned the Torah and set up an image in the sanctuary.
On the Ninth of Av: it was decreed that our fathers would
not enter the Land of Israel, the
Temple was destroyed the first and second times, Betar
was captured, and the City
[of Jerusalem] was plowed up. When Av comes in, we
minimize gladness. . . .
In the week in which the Ninth of Av falls, hair-cutting
and clothes-washing are prohibited, but they are permitted
on Thursday in honor of the Sabbath. On the eve of the
Ninth of Av one may not eat two cooked dishes, eat meat,
or drink wine. Rabban
Simeon ben Gamliel says: "One most simply make some
Judah requires turning
over one's bed, but the Sages do not agree with him.