Visit Your Local PBS Station PBS Home PBS Home Programs A-Z TV Schedules Watch Video Donate Shop PBS Search PBS
Heritage Civilization and the Jews
About the Series Historical Timeline Resources Lesson Plans Episodes
sidecurve1 Out of the Ashes
sidecurve2
sidecurve3
Interactive Presentation
Interactive Atlas
Historical Documents
Video Resources
 
Haavara (Transfer) Agreement Documents

Haavara (Transfer) was a company established in 1935 as the the result of an agreement between the Jewish Agency (the official Jewish executive in Palestine) and the Nazi regime. The agreement was designed to facilitate Jewish emigration to Palestine. Though the Nazis had ordered Jewish emigrants to surrender most of their property before leaving Germany, the Ha'avara agreement let them retain some of their assets by transferring them to Palestine as German export goods. Approximately 50,000 Jews emigrated to Palestine under this arrangement.

 

 

 

 

  Example of certificate issued by Haavara to Jews emigrating to Palestine:

CERTIFICATE
The Trust and Transfer Office "Haavara" Ltd. places at the disposal of the Banks in Palestine amounts in Reichmarks which have been put at its disposal by the Jewish immigrants from Germany. The Banks avail themselves of these amounts in Reichmarks in order to make payments on behalf of Palestinian merchants for goods imported by them from Germany. The merchants pay in the value of the goods to the Banks and the "Haavara" Ltd. pays the countervalue to the Jewish immigrants from Germany. To the same extent that local merchants will make use of this arrangement, the import of German goods will serve to withdraw Jewish capital from Germany.
The Trust and Transfer Office,
HAAVARA, LTD.

We hereby confirm, that in accordance with the above arrangement, we have transferred to-day, by order of Messrs. ______ the sum of (Haavara) Reichmarks: _____ in payment of invoice dated _____ as per order dated ___. Equivalent of above amounting to ___ has been received by us. Dated ____ The above sum in Reichmarks has been transferred to the exporter/s ________ of __________, (German)

  The Haavara agreement was highly controversial. While it helped German Jews to emigrate, it also provided a major market for German goods in Palestine, thereby helping Germany's weak economy at a time when many Jews felt that German goods should be boycotted. The following passage is from an anti-Haavara flier circulated in Palestine.

Until When Will the Yishuv Support Hitler?
BOYCOTT Hitler's Products!
BOYCOTT German Movies!
Ivri! Remember What the German Did to Your Brother

 

DOCUMENT SOURCE

FURTHER READING