Jewish communities develop in the Ottoman Empire and Europe. Though faced with restrictions, communities of Europe and Eastern Europe maintain a thriving Jewish culture. New religious and social movements include Messianism, Hasidism, and the Enlightenment. Jews settle in the New World.
Spain Unified; Columbus Reaches America
||Forced Baptism of Jews in Portugal
||Rise of Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Muslim Empire spreads across Anatolia, the Middle East, the Near East, North Africa, and into Europe. Jewish communities, including those in Israel, develop due to religious toleration and economic opportunity.
||First Jewish Ghetto Established
Jews are forced to live in a separate quarter of the city, "the ghetto," enclosed by walls and gates.
Luther Begins Reformation
||Safed as Center of Jewish Mysticism
of Religious Wars in Germany; Establishment of Ghetto
of Counter Reformation that Establishes Protestantism
Caro and the Shulhan Arukh
Joseph Caro (1488-1575) writes the legal text the Shulhan Arukh, eventually accepted as the authorative Jewish legal code.
Dutch War of Independence; Council
of the Four Lands in Poland
The Council of the Four Lands are the central institutions of Jewish self-government in Poland and Luthuania.
||Conversos Settle in the Netherlands
Conversos from Spain and Portugal settle in Amsterdam where they enjoy religious freedom and are free to practice professions.
||Start of 30 Years War
of English Civil Wars
of Jews in Poland
Chmielnicki (1595-1657) leads Cossack and peasant uprising against Polish rule in Ukraine. Hundreds of Jewish communities are destroyed.
Arrive in New Amsterdam
Jews from Recife, Brazil seek refuge from the Inquisition and settle in New Amsterdam (later New York).
||Jews Readmitted to England by Oliver Cromwell
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), Dutch philosopher, is excommunicated from the Jewish community for heretical opinions.
|1665 - 1667
Shabbetai Zevi, False Messiah
Shabbetai Zevi (1626-1676) proclaims himself the Messiah. Messianic movement spreads internationally.
Lockes Two Treatises on Civil Government
||Death of Louis
XIV, "Sun King" of France (1638-1715)
||First Synagogue in North America Dedicated by Congregation Shearith Israel, New York
||The Baal Shem Tov, Founder of Hasidism
Israel Baal Shem Tov (1700-1760) founds Hasidism, known for its ecstatic worship, group cohesion, and charismatic leadership.
||Start of Haskalah, the Jewish Enlightenment Movement
The Haskalah, the Jewish Enlightenment, emphasizes participation in modern European society and leads to social and educational reforms.
Partition of Poland
Revolution, Religious Freedom Guaranteed
Deaths of Voltaire (1694-1778), Rousseau (1712-1778)
Death of Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786), philosopher of Jewish Enlightenment and spiritual leader of German Jewry.