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Heritage Civilization and the Jews
About the Series Historical Timeline Resources Lesson Plans Episodes
Timeline 3100 568 72 732 1492 1789 1925
Roads from the Ghetto
Revolution The revolutions across Europe grant Jews civil rigths and change the ways in which they are viewed in society. The European Jewish community grows even as many Jews migrate to America and Palestine. Anti-semitism contributes to the founding of the Zionist movement.
1789 French Revolution Begins; U.S. Constitution Ratified
1791 Jews in France Granted Citizenship; Pale of Settlement Established in Russia

Civil rights obtained by Jews in France begins process of Jewish Emancipation and political equality across Europe. Jews of Russia are confined to live within Pale of Settlement territory.
1804 Napoleon Proclaimed Emperor of France
1812 War of 1812; Jews in Prussia Granted Citizenship, Social Restrictions Remain
1815 Napoleon Defeated at Waterloo; Congress of Vienna
c. 1820 Start of Reform Movement

Originating in Germany, the Reform movement conceives of Judaism as an evolving religion. Eliminating many traditional practices and beliefs, Reform Judaism grows in Europe and America.
c. 1830 Start of Major Jewish Immigration from Germany to United States
1830 Height of Industrial Revolution
1840 Damascus Affair

Notorius blood libel against Jews in Damascus.
1848 Revolutions Across Europe; Communist Manifesto Published
1860 Mishkenot Sha'ananim

First modern Jewish neighborhood in Israel outside the walls of Jerusalem.
1861 Kingdom of Italy Proclaimed; American Civil War (1861-1865)
1870 Ghettos Abolished in Italy
1871 Franco-Prussian War; New German Constitution Grants Jews Full Rights
1877 U.S. State New Hampshire Allows non-Christians to Hold Political Office
1881 Start of Major Jewish Immigration from Eastern Europe to United States

Waves of pogroms in Russia lead to mass Jewish immigration to United States.
1882 Start of First Aliyah

Aliyah, "ascension" in Hebrew, refers to immigration to Israel and is a major ideal of Zionism. The First Aliyah was mainly Jews from the Russian empire and Romania.
1887 Jewish Theological Seminary

The Conservative movement establishes its own rabbinical school, the Jewish Theological Seminary, in New York.
1894 Dreyfus Affair

Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935), Jewish officer in the French army, is accused of treason. His court-martial, conviction, and eventual acquittal develops into a significant political event with repercussions throughout the French and Jewish world.
1896 Herzl Publishes "The Jewish State"

Influenced by the Dreyfus Affair, Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) publishes "The Jewish State" and becomes the founder of political Zionism, the movement for the return of Jews to Israel.
1897 First Zionist Congress; Jewish Labor Bund founded

The First Zionist Congress is convened by Herzl in Basel, Switzerland, where the World Zionist Organization is created. The Bund, the Jewish socialist party, is founded in Russia.
1903 Kishinev Pogroms
1905 "Protocols of the Elders of Zion"

The anti-Semitic treatise "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" is published and asserts an international Jewish conspiracy.
1909 Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv, the first modern, all-Jewish, Hebrew speaking city is founded in Israel.
1914 World War I (1914- 1918)
1917 Weimar Republic; Russian Revolution; British Capture Palestine from Turkish Empire, Balfour Declaration

With the Russian Revolution, the Jews of Russia are granted civil equality. The Balfour Declaration is the British declaration of support for a Jewish national home in Palestine.
1919 Peace Treaty of Versailles
1924 U.S. Immigration Quotas

By the time free immigration is ended in the U.S., approximately 2,300,000 Jews have settled in America, creating a vibrant Jewish and Yiddish culture.
1925 Inflation in Germany

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