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Justice & The Generals
El Salvador
Around the World
About the Film
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Introduction Lesson Plans Further Practice National Standards Resources

This online Education section accompanies the program JUSTICE & THE GENERALS and is designed for high-school social studies teachers working with 11th and 12th grade students. These pages consist of four lesson plans with learning extensions, assessment recommendations, and Web links. The Teacher's Guide contains video viewing tips, suggestions for teaching controversial subjects, background readings, and correlative national standards. Teachers can review this section and view the film before engaging students in the learning activities, which can be introduced sequentially or as stand-alone activities.

JUSTICE & THE GENERALS reports on the events leading to the Ford v. Garcia trial, a civil lawsuit brought by the families of four churchwomen found murdered in El Salvador on December 2, 1980. The program also investigates the Romagoza v. Garcia case, in which Salvadoran torture survivors are suing the same generals in a U.S. court. By viewing the film and participating in its accompanying learning activities, students make critical determinations about:
  • the challenges in addressing international human rights violations.

  • the role of United States foreign policy in balancing political interests and justice.

  • the interpretive nature of international humanitarian law.

  • the judgement of military leaders and those under their command.

About the Author

From classroom instructor to an executive director, Michele Israel has been an educator for nearly 20 years. She has developed and managed innovative educational initiatives, taught in nontraditional settings in the U.S. and overseas, developed curricula and educational materials, and designed and facilitated professional development for classroom and community educators. Currently operating Educational Consulting Group, Israel is involved with diverse projects, including strategic planning, educational product development, needs assessments, and more.

Use LEARNING FROM EL SALVADOR'S PAST to help students analyze the murders of the four churchwomen within the context of El Salvador's civil war. >>

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WHO TAKES THE BLAME? focuses on the Doctrine of Command Responsibility by looking at how it has been applied to the churchwomen case. >>

Help students explore the responsibilities of governments in THE LEGAL CHALLENGE OF HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION. >>

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Use UNITED STATES: FRIEND OR FOE OF HUMAN RIGHTS? to teach about U.S. foreign relations within the context of human rights.>>