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timeline of the pharaohs
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Circa 3000 BC First use of basin irrigation. Irrigation increases the amount of farmed land and yield.
Circa 2686 BC 1st Dynasty kings are buried in the first royal tombs at Abydos. Monumental architecture indicates a new political order, with a state religion headed by a god-king.
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Pharaoh
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Circa 2890 BC Ascension of Hetepsekhemwy, first king of the 2nd Dynasty. The political and economic foundations of Egypt are solidified.
Circa 2890-2686 BC Wooden coffins and corpses wrapped in resin become common in middle-status Egyptians. The use of resin and wood indicates increased trade with Lebanon.
Merchant
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Circa 2686 BC State-organized building projects drive Egyptian economic and social growth, marking the transition from the Early Dynastic to the Old Kingdom.
Giza, Great Pyramids
Circa 2686-2648 BC The Step Pyramid at Saqqara, the first successfully completed large stone building project in the world, built during the reign of King Djoser.
Saqqara Memphis, step pyramid
Circa 2613-2494 BC Peak of pyramid design and construction, including King Khufu's Great Pyramid at Giza. The Great Sphinx becomes part of the pyramid complex of King Khafra.
Khufu's Pyramid at Giza
Slave/Laborer
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Secrets of the Pharaohs Early Dynastic