Frontline/World correspondent Jane Kokan reports
on the theocratic Iranian regime's crackdown on students,
journalists and other sources of opposition. Kokan talks
to dissidents in London and Amsterdam, and travels undercover
in Iran to trace the steps of Zahra Kazemi, the Canadian
journalist killed by Iranian security forces in July 2003.
This BBC NEWS profile includes a timeline of the past
century in Iran, a short biography of current president
Mohammad Khatami and an overview of media in Iran.
World Factbook: Iran
Approximately 68 million people live in the 30 provinces
of the Islamic Republic of Iran, a country slightly larger
than the state of Alaska. With estimated oil reserves
exceeding 130 billion barrels, Iran produces about 4 million
barrels of oil per day. Learn more about the economy and
people in the CIA's World Factbook on Iran.
The University of Texas at Austin has archived a number
of CIA-created maps detailing Iran's regions and cities.
Khamenei of Iran
This is the official Web site, in English, of Supreme
Leader Ayatollah Khamenei, Iran's chief of state.
This comprehensive, independently produced Web guide organizes
Iran-related background and links by topic. Subject headings
include government, society and culture, history and national
heritage, arts and entertainment, literature, and news
This 2002 FRONTLINE documentary on PBS examined
President George W. Bush's inclusion of Iran in the "axis
of evil" and looked at relations between the United States
and Iran. The accompanying Web site includes an overview
of Iran's government and political system and a look at
election outcomes from 1997 through 2001.
Story of the Revolution
This is a four-part radio series about the Islamic Revolution
of 1979 produced by the BBC Persian Service with text
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Iran's Nuclear Program
Since October 2003, three European nations have been trying
to persuade Iran to cease efforts to enrich uranium for
a nuclear reactor. The Council on Foreign Relations Web
site chronicles the dramatic developments and diplomatic
brinkmanship leading up to the apparent unraveling of
the negotiations in May 2005. This nonpartisan center's
site also contains background information on Iran's nuclear
Threat Initiative: Iran Profile
This country profile provides an overview of Iran's nuclear
capacity, which includes research reactors and two partially
constructed power reactors at Bushehr. The site also includes
a chronology of Iran's nuclear history from 1957, when
the United States helped the shah start Iran's nuclear
energy program, until 2005, after the international community
pressured Iran to stop temporarily its efforts to produce
nuclear fuel. Nuclear Threat Initiative, founded by Ted
Turner and former Senator Sam Nunn to address proliferation
issues, also provides links to other reports and papers
regarding Iran and weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
International Atomic Energy Agency and Iran
Since 2002, when revelations emerged that Iran had been
developing a secret nuclear program for almost 20 years,
European powers have been trying to persuade Iran to cease
production of nuclear fuel, a process that can also be
used to make fuel for nuclear weapons. During negotiations,
the United Nations' nuclear cooperation arm, the International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspected nuclear facilities
in Iran. In addition to reports and resolutions, the IAEA
Web site on Iran includes remarks by Director General
Mohamed ElBaradei and a timeline of key events marking
the agency's amassing of information about Iran's nuclear
Resolution of Nov. 2004
This resolution (in PDF format) adopted by the IAEA on
Nov. 29, 2004, welcomes Iran's decision to temporarily
suspend its uranium enrichment program while engaged in
negotiations with France, Britain and Germany. The resolution
reiterates IAEA's recognition of nations' rights to develop
nuclear energy programs but also stresses the need for
effective safeguards to prevent nuclear material from
being used for weapons.
Seeks More Centrifuges"
This May 3, 2005, article on the ABC News Web site includes
a link to a proposal from Iran during negotiations with
Germany, Britain and France. The document provides a glimpse
of what was on the table during the negotiations surrounding
Iran's nuclear program. For example, Iran proposes passing
legislation declaring that it would not produce nuclear
weapons while the European Union (EU) would pledge to
guarantee Iran access to European markets.
Leaves the World Guessing"
This BBC News analysis looks at the uncertainty created
in May 2005, when Iran declared that it would soon restart
enriching uranium, and European powers countered with
their own threats of reporting Iran to the U.N. Security
Council for being in violation of the Nuclear Nonproliferation
Energy Organization of Iran
Iran's official nuclear agency, the Atomic Energy Organization
of Iran, was established in 1973. The Web site includes
a brief overview of the organization, which oversees nuclear
fuel production, regulation, power plants, research, regulation,
planning and education.
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This comprehensive package on the Web site of PBS's NewsHour
follows nuclear issues from the first atomic bomb tests
in 1945 to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
Review Conference in May 2005. The feature includes an
interactive map and a timeline that tracks the attempts
of individual nations to build nuclear weapons over the
last half century. The site also archives NewHour
reports on nuclear issues.
NPT Review Conference
In 1995, the nations in the NPT agreed to expand its terms
indefinitely. At the 2000 NPT Review Conference, the parties
to the treaty agreed to a list of 13 recommendations to
better achieve the goals set out in the NPT. Read more
on the official Web site of the conference.
Rise of a New Axis?"
In this May 2005 posting on YaleGlobal Online, nonproliferation
expert Leonard S. Spector warns of the possibility of
a nuclear relationship between Iran and North Korea, which
could enhance both nations' nuclear programs. Spector
argues that North Korea could become the world's main
source of nuclear proliferation following the shutdown
of the clandestine nuclear technology trading network
connected to Pakistani nuclear scientist Abdul Qadeer
on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
On March 5, 1970, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation
of Nuclear Weapons came into force, signed by 43 nations,
including the United States, the Soviet Union and Great
Britain. Since then, nearly 190 countries have become
part of the treaty. This U.S. State Department link includes
a history and full text of the treaty, which was meant
to provide a political and legal barrier to the spread
of nuclear weapons while allowing for the growth of peaceful
Unbound: Nuclear Tales from Pakistan"
In the late 1980s, the man who became Pakistan's top nuclear
scientist acquired centrifuge blueprints from Europe and
established a clandestine network to feed Pakistan's nuclear
weapons program. The scientist, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan,
became a national hero. This research story by the Center
of Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute
of International Studies chronicles how Khan and his associates
spread nuclear technology, equipment and advice to Iran,
North Korea and Libya until as late as 2003.
Double Life of Asher Karni"
Frontline/World correspondent Mark Schapiro follows
the story of a former Israeli military officer, living
in South Africa, accused of exporting equipment to Pakistan
that could be used in the production of nuclear weapons.
with Armageddon: Welcome to a New Arms Race"
This Feb. 20, 2005, article in the British Observer,
posted here on the U.K. Guardian Web site, discusses
how the end of the Cold War did not stop the spread of
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News and Resources
The news archive page at Proliferation News and Resources
links to various sources for the latest nuclear proliferation-related
news. The site is produced by the nonpartisan Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace.
The Weapons of Mass Destruction page at GlobalSecurity.org -- a site produced by a defense and research organization in Virginia -- posts frequently updated links to news about WMD.
This English-language newspaper in Tehran tends to support
a hard-line pro-government view.
The English-language reformist newspaper offers PDF versions
of past editions.
Islamic Republic News Agency
This is the English version of Iran's official news agency.
Payvand Iran News
This Web site posts breaking news about Iran from various
Iranian and Western news sources.
This comprehensive directory of Iran media sources includes
links to dozens of newspapers, radio stations and television
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