Nov 1, 2021 12:18 PM EDT

5 top issues for the climate summit

The COP26 talks were always bound to be tense, but the coronavirus pandemic, the ensuing economic crisis and the recent energy crunch have put even more pressure on the two-week meeting. Here are five key issues to watch.

1. Rich countries owe poor ones
The failure of rich countries to deliver on a promise first made in 2009 has caused deep anger and distrust among poor nations, with some threatening to block any agreement until the money is provided.

2. Carbon trading
Some unfinished business from the Paris climate summit in 2015 involves the rules for international carbon trading, which is seen as a key instrument to harness market forces in the fight against global warming.

3. Ensuring transparency, committing to new targets
Transparency is a key element of the talks, because the voluntary nature of the Paris accord means countries closely watch what how much progress others make before ratcheting up their targets another notch.

4. Methane
As a greenhouse gas, it’s about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide but stays in the air for only about a decade.

5. The 45 percent pledge
A proposed pledge to reduce emissions by 45 percent by 2030 compared with 2010 levels is not so much a negotiating point as a goal established by the U.N. for the talks to be considered a success.

READ MORE: 4 key issues to watch as world leaders prepare for the Glasgow climate summit