More than four years after military forces toppled Saddam Hussein's Baathist government, Iraq is wrestling with reintegrating former members of his party, a policy trumpeted by American leaders but met with tough resistance by some Iraqi factions.

In December 2006, the Pentagon reported that violence in Iraq had hit at an all-time high. Between August and November, attacks against U.S. forces, Iraqi security forces and Iraqi civilians increased nearly 30 percent, to an average of 959 per…

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