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Reconstruction: The Second Civil War | Map

State by State

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In the years between the U.S. Census surveys of 1860 and 1870, the nation split apart and waged a war that killed hundreds of thousands of Americans, and wounded or disabled many more. Farms and property were destroyed; capital was diverted; and Southern agriculture was transformed when four million black people were emancipated from slavery.

Census data from 1860 and 1870 reveals trends in farm values and manufacturing output, and highlights each state's fortunes.

Alabama, Confederate State
Alabama's economy plunged into crisis during the war. Confederate general Braxton Bragg returned home to find "all was lost, except my debts."

With fields destroyed and slaves gone, the state's farms recaptured less than 40% of their pre-war value. Alabama built railroads and restarted cotton production, but the state's coal and iron industries would not develop until the 1880s.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  50,064  67,382
 Value of Farm Land   $175.8 million   $67.7 million
 Number of Factories  1,459  2,188
 Value of Manufactured Products  $10.6 million  $13 million


Arkansas, Confederate State
Railroads opened up new areas to development and commercial farming throughout Arkansas. Many subsistence farmers were forced into commercial production by their debts, having borrowed against their future crops.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  33,190  49,424
 Value of Farm Land   $91.6 million  $40 million
 Number of Factories  518  1,070
 Value of Manufactured Products  $2.9 million  $4.6 million


California, Union State
California's mines and farms dominated the state economy. The transcontinental railroad opened in 1869, linking California with eastern markets.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  14,044  23,724
 Value of Farm Land  $48.7 million  $141.2 million
 Number of Factories  8,468  3,984
 Value of Manufactured Products  $68.3 million  $66.6 million


Connecticut, Union State
The number of farms in long-settled Connecticut did not change much during or after the Civil War. Already the home of business successes like the Colt firearms factory, the state experienced growth in manufacturing and finance during Reconstruction.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  25,101  25,508
 Value of Farm Land  $90.8 million  $124.2 million
 Number of Factories  3,019  5,128
 Value of Manufactured Products  $81.9 million  $161.1 million


Delaware, Border State
Tiny Delaware could not compete with larger states' agriculture and industry, but both sectors grew within the state during and after the war. The DuPont Company, which had supplied a large percentage of the Union Army's gunpowder, was -- and still is -- one of Delaware's major businesses.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  6,588  7,615
 Value of Farm Land  $31.4 million  $46.7 million
 Number of Factories  615  800
 Value of Manufactured Products  $9.9 million  $16.8 million


Florida, Confederate State
During Reconstruction, Florida attracted Northern capital to build tourism, but the state was not spared economic hardship. In the 1870s, the Florida legislature was forced to close the state penitentiary and halt the construction of the state's first institution of higher learning.

Freedmen in Florida became landowners more readily than those in cotton states, under the Southern Homestead Act, since there was less competition for land.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  6,396  10,241
 Value of Farm Land  $16.4 million  $9.9 million
 Number of Factories  185  659
 Value of Manufactured Products  $2.4 million  $4.7 million


Georgia, Confederate State
Wartime destruction and a subsequent economic depression forced many of the state's rice plantations into bankruptcy. New railroad lines and commercial fertilizers increased cotton cultivation in Georgia's upcountry, but rice growers never recovered, and the state's coastal plantation homes, as Northerner Edward King reported,were abandoned "like sorrowful ghosts lamenting the past." However, freed slaves found more landowning opportunities in lowcountry Georgia.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  53,897  69,956
 Value of Farm Land  $157.1 million  $94.6 million
 Number of Factories  1,890  3,836
 Value of Manufactured Products  $16.9 million  $31.2 million


Illinois, Union State
Illinois was among the big economic winners during the Civil War and Reconstruction, as Americans moved west. Chicago had built itself into a major industrial and economic center and a railroad hub, attracting tens of thousands of settlers to the state, and growth and investment continued rapidly.

Illinois farm values rose 125% in a decade, and the state's manufactured output -- including the meat, brushes, glue, and other products of Philip Armour's pork-packing operation -- skyrocketed 257% in value.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  142,338  202,803
 Value of Farm Land  $408.9 million  $920.5 million
 Number of Factories  4,268  12,597
 Value of Manufactured Products  $57.6 million  $205.6 million


Indiana, Union State
Before the Civil War, rural, agricultural Indiana had only a few small industries. After the war manufactuing expanded greatly, especially in the city of Indianapolis.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  126,898  161,289
 Value of Farm Land  $356.7 million  $634.8 million
 Number of Factories  5,110  11,847
 Value of Manufactured Products  $41.8 million  $108.6 million


Iowa, Union State
The Homestead Act and low land prices brought migrants to Iowa. The state's agricultural growth was phenomenal; as part of the "Corn Belt," Iowa became a center of corn and hog production.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  59,629  116,292
 Value of Farm Land  $119.9 million  $392.7 million
 Number of Factories  1,939  6,566
 Value of Manufactured Products  $14 million  $46.5 million


Kansas, Union State
Kansas' population grew dramatically as settlers pushed west, creating a mostly agrarian economy based on small family farms. After the Civil War, Kansas became a cattle distribution center, as Texas herds were driven to Dodge City, Abilene, and other cowtowns en route to Kansas City, Chicago, and the East coast.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  10,108  38,202
 Value of Farm Land  $12.3 million  $90.3 million
 Number of Factories  344  1,477
 Value of Manufactured Products  $4.4 million  $11.8 million


Kentucky, Border State
Before the Civil War, Kentucky was primarily an agricultural state, with extensive hemp and tobacco plantings. After the war, the hemp industry declined but the tobacco industry boomed.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  83,689  118,422
 Value of Farm Land  $291.5 million  $311.2 million
 Number of Factories  3,450  5,390
 Value of Manufactured Products  $37.9 million  $54.6 million


Louisiana, Confederate State
New Orleans remained an important port city during Reconstruction, but it faced an ever-increasing threat from the railroads. Louisiana sugar planters, unable to pay wartime debts, lost much of their land to Northern investors. Though some of the land was redistributed to former slaves, the plantation system largely persisted.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  17,281  28,481
 Value of Farm Land  $204.8 million  $68.2 million
 Number of Factories  1,744  2,557
 Value of Manufactured Products  $15.6 million  $24.2 million


Maine, Union State
Shipbuilding and fishing led Maine's fast-growing economy before the Civil War. After the war, population growth slowed as residents migrated west and the state became more dependent on forestry products and textile industries.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  55,675  59,804
 Value of Farm Land  $78.7 million  $103 million
 Number of Factories  3,810  5,550
 Value of Manufactured Products  $38.2 million  $79.5 million


Maryland, Border State
Before the war, Maryland's economy was divided between slave plantations in the south, small farms in the north, and manufacturing industry in Baltimore. Manufacturing became dominant after the war.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  25,244  27,000
 Value of Farm Land  $146 million  $170.4 million
 Number of Factories  3,083  5,812
 Value of Manufactured Products  $41.7 million  $76.6 million


Massachusetts, Union State
Massachusetts was one of the most industrialized states before the war and remained so afterwards, with Boston continuing to act as a magnet for massive European immigration. The agricultural economy that remained revolved around small family farms.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  35,556  26,500
 Value of Farm Land  $123.3 million  $116.4 million
 Number of Factories  8,176  13,212
 Value of Manufactured Products  $255.5 million  $553.9 million


Michigan, Union State
Michigan's timber and mining industries were expanded under the control of large Eastern corporations and their output rose dramatically during Reconstruction.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  62,389  98,786
 Value of Farm Land  $160.8 million  $398.2 million
 Number of Factories  3,448  9,455
 Value of Manufactured Products  $32.7 million  $118.4 million


Minnesota, Union State
New railroad construction shifted Minnesota's agricultural economy away from independent farmers and towards larger farms. Extensive wheat fields and forests fueled growth in the flour milling and lumber industries.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  17,999  46,500
 Value of Farm Land  $27.5 million  $97.8 million
 Number of Factories  562  2,270
 Value of Manufactured Products  $3.4 million  $23.1 million


Mississippi, Confederate State
Mississippi attempted to modernize its plantation economy after the end of slavery. The legislature enacted policies to attract Northern capital, including huge land grants to railroads, and almost no taxes for railroads and other corporations.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  37,007  68,023
 Value of Farm Land  $190.8 million  $81.7 million
 Number of Factories  976  1,731
 Value of Manufactured Products  $6.6 million  $8.2 million


Missouri, Border State
New railroads in Missouri created better conditions for large companies, who squeezed out small, independent producers. The railroads opened up new markets for mined, agricultural and manufactured goods. The invention of refrigerated railroad cars would make meat packing, once a part-time local industry, a mainstay of the state's economy.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  88,552  148,328
 Value of Farm Land  $230.6 million  $392.9 million
 Number of Factories  3,157  11,871
 Value of Manufactured Products  $41.8 million  $206.2 million


Nebraska, Entered the Union 1867
The new state of Nebraska experienced a postwar population surge. Connected to the East via newly built railroad lines, Nebraska became a prime provider of agricultural products.

   1870
 Number of Farms  12,301
 Value of Farm Land  $30.2 million
 Number of Factories  670
 Value of Manufactured Products  $5.7 million


Nevada, Entered the Union 1864
Nevada, made a state to help President Lincoln win reelection, prospered from mining. By 1880, Nevada would have the highest per capita income in the nation.

   1870
 Number of Farms  1,036
 Value of Farm Land  $1.5 million
 Number of Factories  330
 Value of Manufactured Products  $15.9 million


New Hampshire, Union State
Though the manufacturing grew in New Hampshire from 1860 to 1870, its share of the national market dwindled. Agriculture was based in small farms.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  30,444  29,642
 Value of Farm Land  $69.7 million  $80.6 million
 Number of Factories  2,592  3,342
 Value of Manufactured Products  $37.6 million  $71 million


New Jersey, Union State
After the Civil War, technological improvements and new markets stimulated New Jersey's manufacturing sector. An influx of immigrants during Reconstruction helped alleviate labor shortages caused by wartime casualties.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  27,460  30,652
 Value of Farm Land  $180.3 million  $257.5 million
 Number of Factories  4,173  6,636
 Value of Manufactured Products  $76.3 million  $169.2 million


New York, Union State
New York boasted the nation's most valuable farm land both before and after the Civil War. New York City was the nation's biggest commercial, manufacturing and financial center during Reconstruction. New railroads shifted commercial traffic away from canals and other waterways.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  195,459  216,253
 Value of Farm Land  $803.3 million  $1.27 billion
 Number of Factories  22,624  36,206
 Value of Manufactured Products  $378.9 million  $785.2 million


North Carolina, Confederate State
After the Civil War, North Carolina aggressively attempted to lure Northern capital to stimulate mineral extraction. Subsidized railroad companies opened up new farming opportunities in undeveloped parts of the state.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  67,022  93,565
 Value of Farm Land  $143.3 million  $78.2 million
 Number of Factories  3,689  3,642
 Value of Manufactured Products  $16.7 million  $19 million


Ohio, Union State
Ohio's farm values were second highest in the nation both before and after the Civil War. Ohio developed large industrial and mining industries supporting the railroad industry.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  173,383  195,953
 Value of Farm Land  $678.1 million  $1.05 billion
 Number of Factories  11,123  22,773
 Value of Manufactured Products  $121.7 million  $269.7 million


Oregon, Union State
Agriculture, mining and logging remained the major industries in Oregon during Reconstruction.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  5,657  7,587
 Value of Farm Land  $15 million  $22.4 million
 Number of Factories  309  969
 Value of Manufactured Products  $3 million  $6.9 million


Pennsylvania, Union State
While Pennsylvania's farms increased in value following the war, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh became manufacturing centers in an industrial boom.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  156,021  174,041
 Value of Farm Land  $662.1 million  $1.04 billion
 Number of Factories  22,363  37,200
 Value of Manufactured Products  $290.1 million  $711.9 million


Rhode Island, Union State

Foreign immigrants provided labor for Rhode Island's manufacturing sector after the war, and agriculture began to decline in importance.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  5,364  5,368
 Value of Farm Land  $19.6 million  $21.6 million
 Number of Factories  1,191  1,850
 Value of Manufactured Products  $40.7 million  $111.4 million


South Carolina, Confederate State
Seeking to alleviate economic hardship during Reconstruction, South Carolina offered incentives to railroads and other corporations to build in the state.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  28,456  51,889
 Value of Farm Land  $139.7 million  $44.8 million
 Number of Factories  1,230  1,584
 Value of Manufactured Products  $8.6 million  $9.9 million


Tennessee, Confederate State
Tennessee sought to spur the growth of manufacturing through state-sponsored development, but agriculture remained important to the state.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  77,741  118,141
 Value of Farm Land  $271.4 million  $218.7 million
 Number of Factories  2,572  5,317
 Value of Manufactured Products  $18 million  $34.4 million


Texas, Confederate State
Following the Civil War, Northern investors helped to develop a thriving cattle industry in Texas. Thousands of former slaves found work as cooks or cattle herders.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  37,363  61,125
 Value of Farm Land  $88.1 million  $60.1 million
 Number of Factories  983  2,399
 Value of Manufactured Products  $6.6 million  $11.5 million


Vermont, Union State
Though manufacturing grew in some parts of Vermont, agriculture remained important. During Reconstruction, the state experienced a loss of labor, as Vermonters migrated West. 

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  30,976  33,827
 Value of Farm Land  $94.3 million  $139.4 million
 Number of Factories  1,883  3,270
 Value of Manufactured Products  $14.6 million  $32.2 million


Virginia, Confederate State
Richmond, the capital city of the Confederacy and an important port city, languished after the war, unable to compete with new railroads. Covered with battle sites, Virginia was one of the states most damaged by war; farm values plummeted from the fifth-highest in the nation to the 10th. The state attempted to attract capital with low taxes and subsidies.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  86,468  73,849
 Value of Farm Land  $371.8 million  $213 million
 Number of Factories  5,385  5,933
 Value of Manufactured Products  $50.7 million  $38.4 million


West Virginia, Entered the Union in 1863
West Virginia emancipated its slaves during the war, seceding from Virginia. The new state's economy moved away from plantation farming toward smaller-scale farming and manufacturing. 

   1870
 Number of Farms  39,778
 Value of Farm Land  $101.6 million
 Number of Factories  2,444
 Value of Manufactured Products  $24.1 million


Wisconsin, Union State
Already a major agricultural center during the war, Wisconsin had flour milling and timber industries that grew substantially during Reconstruction.

   1860  1870
 Number of Farms  68,782  102,904
 Value of Farm Land  $131.1 million  $300.4 million
 Number of Factories  3,064  7,013
 Value of Manufactured Products  $27.8 million  $77.2 million

 

Data source: University of Virginia Geospatial and Statistical Data Center. United States Historical Census Data Browser. 

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