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Ferdinando II's Era: 1581 - 1687
1581: Galileo enters University of Pisa
World's first ballet performed at court of Queen Catherine de'Medici in France

1583: Galileo discovers uniformity of pendulum vibrations

1587: Francesco I dies; his brother Ferdinando de'Medici crowned Grand Duke of Tuscany

1588: The King of Spain sends an Armada to attack England

1589: Catherine de'Medici dies; six months later, her last son, Henri III of France, is assassinated Henri de Navarre, a Protestant married to Catherine's daughter Margot, is crowned King of France
Galileo made Professor of Mathematics at the University of Pisa

1590: Cosimo de'Medici born

1591: Shakespeare's first plays performed in London

1592: Galileo begins to work on theories of motion

1600: World's first opera, Euridice, performed at Pitti Palace
Giordano Bruno burned at the stake in Rome

1604: Galileo conducts experiments with balls and inclined slopes

1605: Galileo dedicates his work on a military compass to the Medici

1609: Ferdinando I dies; Cosimo II crowned Grand Duke of Tuscany
The telescope is invented in the Netherlands; Galileo improves the design and observes the moon.

1610: Ferdinando de'Medici born
Galileo discovers the moons of Jupiter, and calls them the Medici stars. He begins to study the heliocentric universe.

1611: Galileo appointed Royal Professor of Mathematics and Philosophy to the Medici Grand Dukes

1618: The Thirty Years War breaks out across central Europe

1620: The Pilgrim fathers land at Plymouth Rock in what is to become the USA

1621: Cosimo II dies; Ferdinando II crowned Grand Duke of Tuscany

1630: Plague in Florence

1632: Galileo publishes Dialogue of the Two World Systems

1633: Galileo summoned to Rome and forced to recant.

1634: Galileo returns to Tuscany, under house arrest

1642: The English Civil War begins
Galileo dies
Isaac Newton born in England

1648: The Thirty Years War ends

1649: King Charles I executed in England

1657: Ferdinando II founds Accademia del Cimento, to honour Galileo's legacy.

1666: Great Fire of London
Isaac Newton begins work on his Laws of Motion

1667: Accademia del Cimento forced to close

1670: Ferdinando II dies; succeeded by Cosimo III

1685: JS Bach born in Germany

1687: Isaac Newton publishes Principia Mathematica

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Medici Palle   The Last of the Medici: 1723 - 1743

Giovanni's Era: 1360-1400

Cosimo's Era: 1401 - 1450

Lorenzo's Era: 1452 - 1498

Medici Popes' Era: 1501 - 1534

Cosimo I's Era: 1537 - 1574

Ferdinando II's Era: 1581 - 1687

The Last of the Medici: 1723 - 1743