Degree of plentifulness. The total number of fish in a population or on a fishing ground.
The developmental life stage of young salmonids and trout that are between the egg and fry stage. The alevin has not absorbed its yolk
sac and has not emerged from the spawning gravels.
Small silvery fishes that swim in big schools. Anchovies are eaten by
tuna, salmon, and many other predatory fishes.
A chemical compound which can inhibit reproduction or cause the destruction of bacteria.
Species on the top of the food chain that depend on the availability
of smaller fish for sustenance.
The production and husbandry of aquatic animals and plants in a controlled environment.
On or near the bottom of a lake, river or ocean.
A mollusk, such as an oyster or a clam, that has a shell consisting of
two hinged valves.
A group of tuna species with iridescent blue skin. Bluefin are some of
the ocean's biggest, fastest predators. They migrate across the world's oceans and can weigh
up to 2,000 pounds (907 kilograms).
A type of fishing that drags a trawl net, sometimes equipped with rollers
or "rock-hoppers," over the seafloor. Bottom trawls can be very destructive to seafloor habitats
that fish and other wildlife depend on.
Harvest of fish or shellfish other than the species for which the fishing gear was set. Examples are
blue crabs caught in shrimp trawls or sharks caught on a tuna longline. Bycatch is also often called incidental catch.
An herbivorous freshwater fish (Cyprinus carpio) originally from Asia
that is frequently bred in ponds and lakes. The carp was also introduced into Europe, where
it is extensively reared in artificial ponds.
The maximum number of organisms that can use a given area of habitat without degrading the habitat and without
causing stresses that result in the population being reduced.
Term used to describe the diet of an organism who eats living animals
Any of numerous scale-free, chiefly freshwater, bottom-living fishes
of Eurasia and North America characteristically having whisker-like projections extending
from the mouth. It is a food fish of the southern United States, farmed extensively in Mississippi.
The omnivorous fish have been bred to require minimal amounts of fishmeal and fish oil.
catch limits (also
referred to a "total allowable catch" or "quota")
A fisheries management tool implemented to limit the quantity of a species
of fish that fishermen are permitted to land in a given amount of time or geographical area.
The deepest part of a stream or harbor, where most of the water flows.
Chilean sea bass
A fish that lives in the deep sea near Chile. The species was called "Patagonian toothfish" until
fish sellers decided it needed a name that would sound more appealing to consumers. This
slow-growing species is in serious trouble from overfishing.
A large coldwater fish that often lives close to the seafloor. Cod have
firm white flesh; for centuries, Atlantic cod have been important to people of many nations
as a food fish.
Extinction is a process that goes from depletion (a fish population or
species severely reduced by overfshing) to commercial extinction (the population or species
becomes too rare to catch profitably) to biological extinction (the species no longer exists).
Product. Goods and services which are the result of production processes normally intended for
sale on the market at a price that is designed to cover their costs of production.
All of the plants and animals living in a specific area (habitat), often
described by the most abundant or obvious organisms. The kelp forest community means all
the animals and plants that are part of the kelp forest.
An agreement between two parties in which each side makes concessions.
The practice of protecting nature from loss or damage.
Polluted or impurity caused by contact with another substance.
The submerged shelf of land that slopes gradually from the exposed edge
of a continent to where the drop-off to the deep seafloor begins.
A group of invertebrate animals related to sea anemones. Individual coral
animals have soft bodies topped by a ring of stinging tentacles for catching food. Some kinds
of coral build hard limestone skeletons; when they die, other corals build on top until a
great reef is formed.
For renewable resources, the part of the harvest, logging, catch and so forth above
the sustainable level of the resource stock; for non-renewable resources, the quantity of resources extracted.
A general term referring to a class of structurally and chemically related
compounds, including the "dioxin-like" Biphenyls (PCBs). Dioxins are chemical contaminants
that are known to cause cancer in humans.
The volume of oxygen dissolved in water.
A net attached to a frame that's dragged along the ocean floor to collect
A logo placed on product labels, usually indicating that a manufacturer
has used “environment-friendly” practices when creating a product.
The natural system in which energy and nutrients cycle between plants,
animals and their environment.
Discharge of liquid waste or pollution. Effluents can contain bacteria,
viruses, excessive nutrient loads and chemicals that are harmful to wildlife and human health.
A fish egg containing an embryo that has developed enough so the eyes are visible through the egg membrane.
A person who takes on the risk of a business venture hoping to profit.
When a farmed fish finds its way out of a netcage and into the open water.
Escapes are often as the result of storm damage or human error.
The area where a river meets the ocean.
A large ship equipped to catch, clean and freeze fish for market.
An aquatic animal, such as a clam, barnacle, or sponge, that feeds by
filtering particulate organic material from water.
The effort to regulate where, when and how people fish, and how many
fish they catch. The intent is usually to protect fish populations so that people can continue
to fish. Most fisheries management is done by government agencies such as the U.S. National
Marine Fisheries Service.
The occupation or industry of catching, processing, and selling fish and shellfish; an area where fish
or shellfish are caught.
The amount of fishing effort for a certain species of fish or shellfish.
If there's heavy fishing pressure on sharks, it means that lots of sharks are being caught
Ground dried fish used as a component of formulated feed for farmed (carnivorous)
fish and livestock.
Oil obtained from fish, a vital ingredient in the formulated feed for
A general term for fishes like flounder, sole and halibut that are flattened
for life on the seafloor.
The relationship between plants and animals that shows who eats what.
Energy is transferred from one organism to another through the food chain.
The notion that all people in a community, especially the most vulnerable,
have reliable access to good nutritious food into the future.
The consideration of human health risks associated with certain food
A stage of development in young salmon or trout. During this stage the fry is usually less than one year old,
has absorbed its yolk sac, is rearing in the stream, and is between the alevin and parr stage of development.
A type of fishing net that catches fish by their gills or gill covers.
An organism's home; for example: in the midwater, on the seafloor, near
the surface or in a tide pool.
A large fish with a flattened body adapted for life on the seafloor.
The catching of seafood.
Gear used to extract fish from the water
A place where the eggs of fish are hatched
An animal that feeds chiefly on plants.
Term used to describe the diet of an organism who eats plants
Fishery Quota (often referred to as "IFQ")
A regulatory permit under a limited access system to harvest a specified
quantity of fish, expressed by a unit or units representing a percentage of the total allowable
Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHN)
A viral disease of salmon that exists in the wild but is thought to become
amplified within the confines of salmon farms. Outbreaks have occurred in Atlantic salmon
farms in British Columbia. The virus is shed via feces, urine and external mucus, whereas
kidney, spleen, encephalon and the digestive tract are the sites in which virus is most abundant.
Infection is often lethal due to the impairment of osmotic balance and hemorrhages. The visible
signs of the disease are lethargic fish showing occasional bouts of abnormally frenzied activity
that usually precedes death. The abdomen is often swollen and eyes may be protruding.
Infectious Salmon Anemia
A salmon disease that originates in the wild, but tends to be greatly
amplified within the confines of a crowded net cage or pond with high stocking densities.
A measure of length equal to 1,000 meters or about 5/8 of a mile.
Brought to land, brought to shore; in the case of a fish, caught and
brought to land.
The quantities of fish caught and brought to land by fishermen.
The young and immature form of an animal, which must change to become
A type of commercial fishing which uses hundreds of baited hooks on a
line that can be many miles long.
A tree that grows along tropical coasts in salty ocean water, Their extensive
root systems provide a breeding ground for plant and marinelife biodiversity,
and also aid in building up coastlines.
marine protected area
Any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by federal,
state, territorial, tribal, or local laws or regulations to provide lasting protection for
part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein.
A discrete area of the marine environment in which, at a minimum, extractive
activities such as fishing, mining, and shell collecting are restricted or prohibited.
Organic particles, often plankton, that fall into the deep sea from the
sunlit surface waters.
A length of measurement equal to 39.37 inches, or about three feet.
A marine habitat usually defined as the area between surface waters and
the deeper waters nearer to the seafloor.
Any of numerous chiefly marine invertebrates of the phylum Mollusca,
typically having a soft unsegmented body, a mantle, and a hard, protective shell and including
the edible shellfish and the snails.
A mandatory cessation of fishing activities on a species (e.g. the blue whale), in an area (e.g. a sanctuary), with a particular
gear (e.g. large scale driftnets), and for a specified period of time (temporary, definitive, seasonal, or related to re-opening criteria).
Deaths of fish from all causes except fishing (e.g. Ageing, predation , cannibalism, disease and perhaps increasingly pollution).
The scientific study of all aspects of the physics, chemistry, geology
and biology of the world's oceans.
offshore fish farms
Aquaculture operations located beyond three miles of a coastline, often
involving submerged netcages anchored to the seafloor.
A type of fishery that does not restrict how many fishermen or how many
In general, action of exerting a fishing pressure (fishing intensity) beyond agreed optimum level. A reduction of fishing
pressure would, in the medium term, lead to an increase in the total catch.
open netpen or netcage
Floating complexes of cages that confine farmed fish. The nets that comprise
the walls and floors of the cages allow the free exchange of both water and wastes. The pens
are at times covered by additional nets to prevent predation by birds or fortified to prevent
predation by sea lions.
An animal that feeds on both animal and vegetable substances. Catfish
are a good example.
A bright orange fish that lives in the deep sea near Australia and New
Zealand. Orange roughy grow very slowly--the orange roughy sold in markets may be 50 to 80
A living thing – a plant, animal, bacterium or other life form.
From a living thing or organism; originating in nature rather than being
Catching too many fish; fishing so much that the fish cannot sustain
their population. The fish get fewer and fewer, until finally there are none to catch.
A type of fishing net used to surround and catch large schools of fish.
The net (or seine) is pulled in a circle to surround the school then drawn shut at top and
bottom, much like a purse.
Plants and animals (mostly tiny) that swim weakly, or not at all, and
drift with ocean currents. Plankton are an important food source for many fish and other
organisms that live in the sea.
A fish related to cod, heavily fished by people for food. Pollock are
made into fish sticks and imitation crab meat.
Degradation of the natural environment by chemicals, oil, trash or other
A system of pond aquaculture in which more than one species is raised.
In China a type of polyculture has been developed over 4000 years in which different species
of carp inhabit separate niches within the pond ecosystem, with beneficial results.
A group of interbreeding organisms that represents the level of organization at which speciation begins.
Population is measured as the total number of individuals of the species
An animal that kills and eats other animals.
A meeting to discuss or resolve an issue. The general population is invited.
An underwater structure; something that extends up from the seafloor
but does not rise above the surface of the water like an island. Coral reefs are formed from
the hard skeletons of coral. There are also rocky reefs, which are piles of rock under water.
A rule adopted by a federal or state government executive branch agency. A regulation is based on and carries out a law.
The process of moving or re-supplying fish stocks from a reserve storage location to a primary location
Polluted water that runs from the land or escapes from a pond into a
larger body of water.
A measure of the salt content of water; sea water is approximately 3.5
The Salmofan™ is a color scale designed to help the salmon farming industry visually
determine the flesh color of salmon. It looks similar to a fan deck of paint colors. The
farmed salmon are fed food pellets containing either synthetically produced or naturally
derived pigments that are designed to give the flesh of farmed fish a look similar to the
wild salmon. If colorants weren't used, the flesh of most farmed salmon would be more of
a gray hue.
A family of anadromous fishes that breed in rivers but live most of their
adult lives at sea. Salmon have orange or pink flesh. For centuries, salmon have been important
food fish to people of many nations. When they're ready to breed, most salmon find their
way from the ocean back to the same stream where they were born.
A population of salmon that breeds in a certain river. Some rivers have
several different runs of salmon that breed at different times of the year.
Insufficient supply or amount of fish, a shortage of fish.
A naturally occurring seawater parasite. High stocking densities make
fish farms ideal breeding grounds for sea lice, and can drastically increase the number of
lice in surrounding waters. One or two sea lice may be enough to kill a juvenile pink salmon
newly arrived in saltwater.
Substrate particles smaller than sand and larger than clay.
Any of various small, chiefly marine decapod crustaceans, many of which
are edible. The larger kinds are called also prawns. Shrimp are carnivorous. In Thailand
the most commonly farmed species are black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Some other species
of shrimp, including Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and some freshwater species
are being bred to be more disease resistant.
An adolescent salmon which has metamorphosed and which is found on its way downstream toward the sea.
A system that uses transmitted and reflected sound waves to find objects
To breed; especially, to breed by releasing eggs and sperm into the water.
A particular type of plant or animal. Plants and animals can breed only
with members of their own species. In biology, species is a category that's part of the scientific
system for grouping together related plants, animals and other organisms (kingdom, phylum,
class, order, family, genus, species). Species is the most specific category.
The part of a fish population which is under consideration from the point of view of actual or potential utilization.
The number or biomass of fish stocked per unit area or volume, such as
in a pond or net pen.
Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, or the
health of the planet.
The 1996 amendments to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and
Management Act that imposed new requirements for federal fishery managers to prevent overfishing,
rebuild overfished stocks, reduce bycatch, and protect essential fish habitats.
A fishery that is managed so that it can continue long-term, into the
future without depleting either the targeted fish or other marine resources.
A large predatory fish with a long, sword-like bill at the tip of its
snout. Swordfish are famous for their speed, strength and trans-ocean migrations. They are
heavily fished and many populations are vulnerable to over-fishing.
Any of various cichlid fishes of the genus Tilapia, native to Africa's Nile River but introduced
elsewhere as a valuable food fish. Some historians believe that tilapia were the fish that
Jesus fed to the multitudes in the Biblical account. These omnivorous fish have been bred
to require minimal amounts of fishmeal and fish oil.
tragedy of the commons
A metaphor used to illustrate the conflict between individual interests and the common good. The term
was popularized by Garrett Hardin in his 1968 Science article "The Tragedy of the Commons."
Fish that have been genetically modified.
A funnel-shaped net towed through the ocean or along the seafloor to
collect fishes and invertebrates.
A conical fishnet dragged through the water or, in the case of bottom trawl, along the seafloor. This is one of the most
destructive types of fishing equipment.
A fishing boat that tows a trawl net.
Fishing by towing a trawl net.
The movement of cold, nutrient-rich water from the ocean depths up toward
the ocean surface.
An aquatic animal's daily or seasonal movement up toward the water's
surface and back down to deeper water.
Someone who drives or rides in a boat, including both commercial and recreational fisherpeople.
white spot virus
One of many shrimp diseases that plagues the shrimp aquaculture industry.
High stocking densities on farms often create crowded conditions that stress animals and
make them more susceptible to viral and bacterial diseases.
One of the larger species of tuna, which has yellow markings on its fins
and tail. Yellowfin live in warm, tropical waters. Much of the world's canned tuna is yellowfin.