Frontline World

LEBANON - Party of God, May 2003

Related Features THE STORY
Synopsis of "Party of God"

A History of Hezbollah

Negotiating With Hezbollah

Lebanon Country Profile

Hezbollah, the Region and U.S. Policy




Links and Resources

• General Background
• About Hezbollah
• Hezbollah and the United States
• Lebanon and Its Neighbors
• Media Resources

General Background

Lebanon's President
This is the official Web site of Lebanon's president, General Emile Lahoud. The site features a detailed biography of the president and covers the history of Lebanon's government, both before and after independence. Viewers can also find facts about Lebanon and links to other official government sites.

The Centre for Lebanese Studies, Oxford University
The Centre for Lebanese Studies is an independent academic institution at Oxford University. Founded in 1984, its objective is to contribute to Lebanon's recovery through the publication of impartial research on public policy. Current projects include the National Endowment for Democracy, which conducts a series of workshops on democracy in the Arab world, and the Prisoner Rehabilitation project, which seeks to ease the integration of ex-prisoners into Lebanese society.

The U.S. State Department's Profile on Lebanon
The site offers information about the U.S. ambassador to Lebanon and provides a full list of Lebanon's chiefs of state and cabinet members. Viewers can also access links to resources for country profiles, such as the CIA Fact Book, which provides a comprehensive snapshot of Lebanon's people, government and economy.

The Library of Congress's Country Study on Lebanon
This country study is a comprehensive resource for understanding Lebanon's ancient and modern history. Several detailed chapters provide information on Lebanon's economy, military and government as well as on its ethnic and religious composition. This is also a great resource for understanding foreign intervention in Lebanon, including the terrorist attacks suffered by U.S. Marines and the hostage crisis in the 1980s. In particular, see the study's synopsis of Lebanon's civil war.

BBC's Country Profile on Lebanon
The BBC's country profile is useful especially for understanding the various types of media currently operating in Lebanon. Find links here to several of the country's largest newspapers. Viewers also can listen to historical audio transcripts of BBC reporters covering key news events in Lebanon.

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About Hezbollah

U.S. State Department's Profile on Hezbollah
"Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001," a U.S. State Department report, outlines Hezbollah's current activities, its ties to Iran and Syria, and the locations of its forces.

Hezbollah's Manifesto
Hezbollah's formal introduction to the world, originally published on February 16, 1985, in the Beirut newspaper al-Safir, is a manifesto. The statement provides the first public expression of Hezbollah's ideology, including its justification for the fight against the U.S. presence in Lebanon.

Ties to Syria and Iran
Published by the Middle East Intelligence Bulletin in 2002, this is a good resource for understanding the origins of Hezbollah. This article also is useful for understanding Hezbollah's evolving relationship with both Iran and Syria.

Is Hezbollah Next?
This CBS 60 Minutes piece, aired in April 2003, covers Hezbollah's evolution into a powerful political force and explores the idea that it has become the "A-team" of international terrorism, more threatening even than Osama bin Laden.

Hezbollah Today
In the first part of this two-part article published in the New Yorker in October 2002, Jeffrey Goldberg discusses Hezbollah's future course and its current status as a popular political party in Lebanon.

Hezbollah Around the World
The second part of Jeffrey Goldberg's New Yorker article focuses on Hezbollah in South America and the United States.

"Inside Hezbollah," NPR Radio Broadcast
In October 2002, on On Point, a program of NPR's Boston affliate, WBUR, Jeffrey Goldberg and Senator Bob Graham, D-Florida, chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, talked about the state of Hezbollah today.

News on Hezbollah
This site is a free news service offering a convenient aggregate of all newspaper and magazine reports currently published on Hezbollah. Organized chronologically, it includes mainstream and alternative press in the United States as well as international sources.

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Hezbollah and the United States

Hezbollah Attacks on the United States
In this September 2001 interview, Paul Oakley, a former U.S. State Department coordinator for counterterrorism during the 1980s, discusses Hezbollah's attack against U.S. Marines in Beirut.

U.S Policy Responses
In an interview in late September 2001, retired Marine Lt. Col. Bill Cowan, who was sent to Beirut in 1983 by the Pentagon, discusses U.S. responses to terrorism in the 1980s.

U.S. Intervention in Beirut
FRONTLINE interviews Caspar Weinberger after September 11, 2001, about U.S. military intervention in Lebanon. Weinberger was secretary of Defense in the Reagan administration from 1981 to 1987.

The CIA and Hezbollah
In September 2001 on FRONTLINE, Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward talked about CIA activities in Beirut.

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Lebanon and Its Neighbors

Syria and Lebanon
The Council on Foreign Relations, a nonpartisan think tank and publisher that promotes the study of international affairs, provides background on the history of the relationship between Syria and Lebanon.

Connections in Syria and Iran
Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, Robert McFarlane, who served as national security advisor to President Ronald Reagan from 1983 to 1985, appeared on FRONTLINE. McFarlane discussed the role of Syria and Iran in directing Hezbollah attacks.

Iran and Hezbollah
In this March 2002 interview, Robert Baer, a CIA officer stationed in Lebanon in the 1980s, discusses Iran's role in funding Hezbollah.

Synopsis of Israel in Lebanon
Online NewsHour's synopsis covers key events in Israel's occupation of Lebanon, from before the occupation in 1982 through Israel's withdrawal in 2000.

Massacres at Shatila and Sabra Refugee Camps
Listen to BBC audio coverage of the massacres at Shatila and Sabra, where Muslim refugees were killed by Christian militiamen. This broadcast from 1982 highlights the role of the Israeli military in permitting the attacks.

Tragedy at Qana
Jim Lehrer, of PBS's NewsHour With Jim Lehrer, spoke with Israeli cabinet minister Yossi Beilin and Lebanese ambassador to the United States Riad Tabbarah in April 1996 about the Israeli bombing of the United Nations camp at Qana, Lebanon, which killed more than 75 civilians.

Israeli Withdrawal From Lebanon
This Q&A, published by the BBC at the time of Israel's withdrawal from Lebanon in May 2000, presents clear answers to questions about the Israeli occupation.

Audio Report of Israel's Withdrawal
Listen to PBS NewsHour's audio coverage of the evacuation of Israeli troops from Lebanon as reported in May 2000 by Lindsey Hilsum of Independent Television News.

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Media Resources

The Daily Star
The Daily Star has been Lebanon's leading English-language newspaper since 1952. Considered the "journal of record," the paper's online version features local coverage of political and business events in Lebanon as well as coverage of the region.

An-Nahar, a daily newspaper published in Arabic, was founded in 1933. Throughout the civil war, it was one of the few newspapers to resist becoming a mouthpiece for sectarian militia groups. The paper provided independent coverage of the conflict. It has an innovative Web site, where viewers can read the paper in HTML or PDF format or listen to daily headlines in streaming audio.

Monday Morning
Published in Beirut, this weekly English news magazine offers coverage of Lebanese politics and news from around the Middle East. It also features interviews with dignitaries from the region as well as editorials on Middle East politics.

Voice of Lebanon
The Voice of Lebanon is the first commercially operated radio station in the country. Founded in 1975, it broadcasts news, music and even theater in Arabic. Visitors to the station's Web site can listen to streaming audio of that day's headlines.

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