Tell me about it.
Remember that the Soviet state has a vision of the world is such
that the use of force is necessary and in fact, not to use force
is in many ways for them to lose or give up, or to fail in their
mission. Their involved in a world in which capitalism is
the enemy and Socialism is the solution in the future. So, the
use of force to transcend and overcome Capitalism in the class
war, and to defeat Capitalism and to build Socialism is a moral
and political imperative. They are not afraid to use force,
not ashamed to use force. They believe that the use of force
is normal and necessary and part of the way the world is.
The Capitalists, after all, fought the Imperialist War, as the
Soviets called it, of W.W.I and did not worry about how
many people died at the front in order to achieve territorial
aims in one state or the other. The Soviet Union takes that model
to its extreme, whereby the use of force is something which is
not to be hidden, not necessarily you are ashamed of it,
but, you embrace it and use it because that is the way the world
is and because you are pursuing worthwhile aims. Many people
will defend the Soviet use of force, including people in the United
States for precisely these reasons. So, what to us looks like
completely condemnable behavior in the time, in the context, has
a rationale whether we agree with that rationale or not.
Tell me about, what were the pitfalls of, is there anything to
add, was there not diplomatic relations between the American government
and Bolshevik and so the Bolsheviks were more or less on their
own to .... .you might fill in that blank if there is one to fill
Some of the businesses which were involved in the Soviet industrialization
were from countries that had diplomatic relations with the Soviet
Union. They did not really suffer from the problem of an
inability to get government intervention to help defend their
contracts or to have the Soviets meet obligations. The Americans
when they first got involved in Stalin's industrialization program
in 1929, 30, and 31, did not have diplomat representation in the
Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was not recognized by the
United States until the end of 1932 and the beginning of
1933. For some, this added an element of difficulty because
if they couldn't get satisfaction with the Soviet government,
they didn't necessarily have a place to turn. However, what
we see is that those countries that do have diplomatic relations
with the Soviet Union are in no better position to defend the
firms from those countries which are having difficulty with the
Soviets. So, in the end, or, more generally speaking, the
problem of the absence of diplomatic relations is less important
than the level of connections and the relationships enjoyed by
the capitalist firms with their Soviet counterparts. Those
who go high up in the Soviet hierarchy and have deeper relations
do better than those who rely on their government to defend them,
the Soviet bureaucracy.
Antork, whatever you can tell us about that.
Antork is the Soviet trade representative in the United
States, (Russian) trade with the United States. Its job
is to shake out as much money, as much technology, as much professional
engineering capability as it can from the United States on whatever
terms it can , in the best possible terms for the Soviet Union.
It's more or less successful and it is involved in almost all
the major contracts. It also will bring many Soviet engineers
to the United States for advanced training , which is often part
of the contracts of technology transfer, that the next generation
of Soviet engineer will be trained. So, it is a recruitment
office. It is an office for facilitating contracts.
It is an office for targeting and acquiring, by whatever means
necessary, technology know how and commitment and the part of
the Capitalists to industrialize the Soviet Union. It is involved
in many political intrigues, which are related to what is going
on in Moscow. It suffers often from the rise or fall of
particular individuals within the Soviet bureaucracy. The
ways that Antork are often mysterious to the American representatives
who feel they have a contract or a relationship with a particular
individual only to discover that something is taking place in
Moscow and that individual is either no longer there in the post,
or, is no longer the person they were dealing with before.
So, Antork has many specificities and frustrations for the American
side, which are typical of the Soviet bureaucratic behavior, but,
the from the Soviet point of view Antork is more or less successful.
It is shaking out the technology and know how from the West and
bringing it to the Soviet Union.