Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction: Executive Summary
1. Under Saddam Hussein Iraq developed chemical and biological weapons, acquired missiles allowing it to attack neighbouring countries with these weapons and persistently tried to develop a nuclear bomb. Saddam has used chemical weapons, both against Iran and against his own people. Following the Gulf War, Iraq had to admit to all this. And in the ceasefire of 1991 Saddam agreed unconditionally to give up his weapons of mass destruction.
2. Much information about Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction is already in the public domain from U.N. reports and from Iraqi defectors. This points clearly to Iraq’s continuing possession, after 1991, of chemical and biological agents and weapons produced before the Gulf War. It shows that Iraq has refurbished sites formerly associated with the production of chemical and biological agents. And it indicates that Iraq remains able to manufacture these agents, and to use bombs, shells, artillery rockets and ballistic missiles to deliver them.
3. An independent and well-researched overview of this public evidence was provided by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) on 9 September. The IISS report also suggested that Iraq could assemble nuclear weapons within months of obtaining fissile material from foreign sources.
4. As well as the public evidence, however, significant additional information is available to the Government from secret intelligence sources, described in more detail in this paper. This intelligence cannot tell us about everything. However, it provides a fuller picture of Iraqi plans and capabilities. It shows that Saddam Hussein attaches great importance to possessing weapons of mass destruction which he regards as the basis for Iraq’s regional power. It shows that he does not regard them only as weapons of last resort. He is ready to use them, including against his own population, and is determined to retain them, in breach of United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR).
5. Intelligence also shows that Iraq is preparing plans to conceal evidence of these weapons, including incriminating
documents, from renewed inspections. And it confirms that despite sanctions and the policy of containment, Saddam has
continued to make progress with his illicit weapons programmes.
6. As a result of the intelligence we judge that Iraq has: continued to produce chemical and biological agents;
military plans for the use of chemical and biological weapons, including against its own Shia population. Some of these weapons are deployable within 45 minutes of an order to use them; command and control arrangements in place to use chemical and biological weapons. Authority ultimately resides with Saddam Hussein. (There is intelligence that he may have delegated this authority to his son Qusai);
developed mobile laboratories for military use, corroborating earlier reports about the mobile production of biological
warfare agents; pursued illegal programmes to procure controlled materials of potential use in the production of chemical and biological weapons programmes; tried covertly to acquire technology and materials which could be used in the production of nuclear weapons; sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, despite having no active civil nuclear power programme that could
require it; recalled specialists to work on its nuclear programme; illegally retained up to 20 al-Hussein missiles, with a range of 650km, capable of carrying chemical or biological warheads; started deploying its al-Samoud liquid propellant missile, and has used the absence of weapons inspectors to work on extending its range to at least 200km, which is beyond the limit of 150km imposed by the United Nations; started producing the solid-propellant Ababil-100, and is making efforts to extend its range to at least 200km, which is beyond the limit of 150km imposed by the United Nations; constructed a new engine test stand for the development of missiles capable of reaching the U.K. Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus and NATO members (Greece and Turkey), as well as all Iraq’s Gulf neighbours and Israel; pursued illegal programmes to procure materials for use in its illegal development of long range missiles; learnt lessons from previous U.N. weapons inspections and has already begun to conceal sensitive equipment and documentation in advance of the return of inspectors.
7. These judgements reflect the views of the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC). More details on the judgements and on the development of the JIC’s assessments since 1998 are set out in Part 1 of this paper.
8. Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction are in breach of international law. Under a series of U.N. Security Council Resolutions Iraq is obliged to destroy its holdings of these weapons under the supervision of U.N. inspectors. Part 2 of the paper sets out the key U.N. Security Council Resolutions. It also summarises the history of the U.N. inspection regime and Iraq’s history of deception, intimidation and concealment in its dealings with the U.N. inspectors.
9. But the threat from Iraq does not depend solely on the capabilities we have described. It arises also because of the violent and aggressive nature of Saddam Hussein’s regime. His record of internal repression and external aggression gives rise to unique concerns about the threat he poses. The paper briefly outlines in Part 3 Saddam’s rise to power, the nature of his regime and his history of regional aggression. Saddam’s human rights abuses are also catalogued, including his record of torture, mass arrests and summary executions.
10. The paper briefly sets out how Iraq is able to finance its weapons programme. Drawing on illicit earnings generated outside U.N. control, Iraq generated illegal income of some $3 billion in 2001.