California Is Investigating Big Oil for Allegedly Misleading the Public on Recycling

The office of California Attorney General Rob Bonta announced it is investigating oil and gas companies for allegedly deceiving the public into believing most plastic could be recycled.

The office of California Attorney General Rob Bonta announced it is investigating oil and gas companies for allegedly deceiving the public into believing most plastic could be recycled. (Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)

In partnership with:
April 28, 2022

This story is part of a joint investigation with NPR that includes the documentary Plastic Wars, which premiered March 31, 2020, on PBS. Stream the film.

Accusing the country’s largest oil and gas companies of “a half-century campaign of deception,” California’s attorney general opened an investigation Thursday into the possible role the companies played in promoting the idea that plastics could be recycled, in an effort to manipulate the public to buy more of it.

Attorney General Rob Bonta said the fossil fuel industry benefited financially from the industry’s misleading statements, which he said go back decades. Bonta has so far subpoenaed Exxon Mobil, seeking information and documents.

“For more than half a century, the plastics industry has engaged in an aggressive campaign to deceive the public, perpetuating a myth that recycling can solve the plastics crisis,” Bonta said. “The truth is: The vast majority of plastic cannot be recycled.”

The announcement cited NPR and FRONTLINE’s 2020 investigation into the oil and gas industry, which uncovered documents showing top officials knew that recycling plastic was unlikely to work but spent tens of millions of dollars telling the public the opposite. Starting in the 1980s, the industry launched dozens of ads, nonprofits and campaigns touting the benefits of recycling plastic — and placing the responsibility on consumers — even as their own documents warned that recycling was “infeasible” and that there was “serious doubt” that plastic recycling “can ever be made viable on an economic basis,” the investigation found.

Read more: Plastics Industry Insiders Reveal the Truth About Recycling

Graham Forbes, plastics global campaign lead at Greenpeace USA, said California’s investigation is welcome news.

“For too long, Exxon Mobil and other corporate polluters have been allowed to mislead the public and harm people and the planet,” Forbes said. “It is encouraging to see the state of California stand up to the fossil fuel industry. Hopefully, this is a sign that policymakers are ready to start holding corporations accountable.”

In a statement, Exxon Mobil said it rejects the allegations made by the California attorney general and highlighted that it is the first company to use what it referred to as an “advanced recycling technology” to recycle used plastic.

“We are focused on solutions and meritless allegations like these distract from the important collaborative work that is underway to enhance waste management and improve circularity,” the statement said.

The industry group, the American Chemistry Council, said in a statement that the industry is committed to keeping plastic out of the environment and has “proposed comprehensive and bold actions at the state, federal, and international levels.”

Read more: Big Oil Evaded Regulation And Plastic Pellets Kept Spilling

Industry officials have told NPR in the past that the industry has never misled the public and believes it can make plastic recycling work, though they were not able to specify how. In 40 years, no more than 10% of all plastic has ever been recycled.

At a press conference, Bonta said his office’s preliminary findings have provided them with enough information to proceed with an investigation.

“We are not prejudging this, but there is information, significant amounts of it, that is compelling and in the public sphere that has led us to a good faith belief that we should be subpoenaing Exxon Mobil to get more information,” Bonta said. “There is a broad belief that plastics are recyclable. That has been the result of the misinformation campaign, of the deception, that consumers have been manipulated to believe that plastic is recyclable. It was a strategy as far as we can tell.”

Listen: Waste Land

Officials say the investigation also hopes to determine whether any deception is still ongoing. Critics of the oil industry have raised concerns about the industry’s current $1.5 billion effort, which launched in 2019 under the banner “The Alliance to End Plastic Waste” and is made up of the country’s largest oil and plastic producers. Through glossy ads and small demonstration projects, the group promotes plastic recycling and clean up efforts rather than using less plastic.

Bonta said his office is eager to move quickly with the investigation and get hold of the documents they are looking for.

This story has been updated to include a statement from Exxon Mobil received after initial publication. 

Plastic Wars is available to stream in full below, as well as on the PBS Video App and FRONTLINE’s YouTube channel.

Laura Sullivan

Laura Sullivan, Correspondent, NPR



In order to foster a civil and literate discussion that respects all participants, FRONTLINE has the following guidelines for commentary. By submitting comments here, you are consenting to these rules:

Readers' comments that include profanity, obscenity, personal attacks, harassment, or are defamatory, sexist, racist, violate a third party's right to privacy, or are otherwise inappropriate, will be removed. Entries that are unsigned or are "signed" by someone other than the actual author will be removed. We reserve the right to not post comments that are more than 400 words. We will take steps to block users who repeatedly violate our commenting rules, terms of use, or privacy policies. You are fully responsible for your comments.

blog comments powered by Disqus

More Stories

Ex-MPD Officer Thomas Lane Pleads Guilty to Manslaughter Charge for Role in George Floyd’s Murder
He was one of three officers convicted in federal court and expected to face trial next month on state charges.
May 18, 2022
9 Documentaries That Provide Context on the Buffalo Shooting
As America grapples with the deadly massacre, FRONTLINE's past reporting sheds light on the current moment and the circumstances that led to it, from guns to America's history of racist killings.
May 17, 2022
War Crimes Watch: Targeting Ukraine Schools, Russia Bombs the Future
The destruction of schools is about more than toppling buildings and maiming bodies, experts told our reporting partner The Associated Press. It hinders a nation’s ability to rebound after the fighting stops, injuring entire generations.
May 17, 2022
Minneapolis Agrees to Pay $200,000 to Settle Discrimination Complaints by Two Former Police Officers
Colleen Ryan alleged she was denied promotion because she's an openly gay woman, while former Deputy Chief Art Knight alleged his demotion was retaliatory.
May 12, 2022