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Marie Antoinette and the French Revolution
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Aftermath: 1794-1799

1794

May 9: Madame Elisabeth (Louis XVI's sister), who was imprisoned with the Royal Family and was the only companion of Marie Antoinette’s daughter after her mother was taken to the Conciergerie and then executed, is interrogated by the Revolutionary Tribunal. The next day she is condemned to death as a counterrevolutionary and guillotined.
September 18: The Convention establishes a separation of Church and State when it decrees that it will no longer pay Church salaries or expenses.
October 11: The ashes of Jean-Jacques Rousseau are transferred to the Pantheon.
November 12: The Jacobin Club is closed.
November 19: Despite a treaty of Franco-American alliance signed in 1778, the new United States signs a treaty with Great Britain agreeing to blockade French shores.
December 24: Wage control and price control laws are repealed.

1795

February 21: Separation of Church and State officially decreed by the Convention, at the same time that freedom of religious worship is restored.
March 21: The Constitution of 1793, which had been suspended during the period of revolutionary government and never put into effect, is set aside, and committee is formed to draft a new constitution.
April: The "White Terror." After decree of April 10 to disarm all "Terrorists," Jacobin prisoners are massacred in Lyon, France's second city. Murders of former supporters and associates of Robespierre in the Terror are carried out by royalists through June.
April 1: Uprising of 12 Germinal. Sans-culottes demand bread and restoration of Constitution of 1793.
April 5: France signs a peace treaty with Prussia.
May 16: Treaty of the Hague. France signs a peace treaty with the Netherlands.
May 20-23: Uprising of Prairial. Rioting throughout Paris. Demonstrators invade the Convention, calling for bread and the enforcement of the Constitution of 1793.
Louis Charles huddled up against the prison wall
Louis Charles huddled up against the prison wall
June 8: Marie Antoinette's son and heir to the throne, Louis Charles, dies at the age of 10, brutalized and alone and a prisoner in the Temple. He had been declared King Louis XVII by his uncle, the comte de Provence, upon the death of his father, Louis XVI, but the monarchy had already been abolished.
June 23: A new constitution is presented that associates citizenship and the ability to govern with property-holding. This is a direct response to the power of the sans-culottes under the Terror and their continuing demand for the reinstitution of the radical constitution of 1793.
July 22: France signs a peace treaty with Spain.
August 22: The Constitution of the Year III is approved. Vvoting rights are accorded only to those who own enough property to pay indirect taxes.
October 5: Royalist uprising of Vendémiare. Napoleon is instrumental in quelling it.
October 26: Napoleon is named commander-in-chief of all armies within French borders. Last session of National Convention, which is succeeded by the Directory.

1796

March 2: Napoleon is named commander-in-chief of the French Army in Italy.
March 27: Napoleon takes command of the army and begins to prepare his Italian campaign.
American President John Adams
American President John Adams
Napoleon's armies invade Italy and proceed to win victory after victory there against the Piedmontese and the Austrians, culminating in declaration of the Cispadane Republic in Bologna in October.

1797

Beginning of independence movement led by former slave Toussaint L'Ouverture in French colony of Saint Domingue that will become the Haitian Revolution.
September 4: Coup d'etat of Fructidor. Republicans stave off planned rightist coup by expelling moderates and royalists from the Directory.
October 17: France signs Treaty of Campio Formio treaty, ending war with Austria.

1798

May 11: The coup d'etat of the 22nd Floreal, Year VI occurs when the two Councils invalidate half of all elections.
May 19: Napoleon's ill-fated Expedition to Egypt departs France.

1799

August 23: Napoleon leave his troops in Egypt and begins his return to France, arriving in Paris in October.
October 23: Lucien Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother, is elected president of the Council of the Five Hundred.
November 1: Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, the former Abbe Sieyes, meets with Napoleon to plan a coup d'etat, which Sieyes (wrongly) thinks will allow him to institute the constitution he has been advocating.
November 9-10: Napoleon stages his military coup d'etat and becomes First Consul.
December 15: Constitution of the Year VIII (the fourth since 1791) is proclaimed and submitted to a plebescite (up or down vote of the citizens). It is not accompanied by a Declaration of Rights, but it does declare the Revolution over.

Timeline

Early Years 1755 - 1775Married to France: 1770-1780Queen as Mother: 1780-1786Financial Failings: 1787-1788Change of Power: 1789A Revolution: 1789-1790New Rule: 1791A Monarchy Falls: 1792Revolution Enemies: 1792-1793Reign of Terror: 1793-1794Aftermath: 1794-1799
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