drug wars

special reports
Participants in National War on Drugs Symposium...Co-sponsored by Georgetown University Law Center, PBS/FRONTLINE and National Public Radio (NPR)    October 4, 2000, Georgetown University Law Center Washington, D.C.


Deborah Amos, NPR News' special correspondent

Deborah Amos is a National Public Radio (NPR) special correspondent and a correspondent for ABC News. Amos began her career in 1972 after receiving a degree in journalism from the University of Florida, Gainesville. In 1977, she joined NPR, serving as director and then producer for "Weekend All Things Considered." She later served as a NPR special correspondent in Amman, Jordan, and as London bureau chief. Amos spent 1991-92 as a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University; she joined ABC News in 1993 while continuing to work on special projects for NPR.

Amos received widespread recognition for her coverage of the Gulf War, and is the author of Lines in the Sand: Desert Storm and the Remaking of the Arab World.

Lowell Bergman, moderator, and series reporter, FRONTLINE's Drug Wars

Lowell Bergman is an award-winning reporter, producer, and journalism consultant. Through the years he has produced and reported on numerous FRONTLINE films, including "Murder, Money and Mexico," which won the Alfred I. duPont-Columbia Gold Baton. His other FRONTLINE films have investigated such varied topics as the international trade in toxic and hazardous waste, the legal assault on the tobacco industry, and the 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Africa.

Originally a print reporter, Bergman co-founded the non-profit Center for Investigative Reporting in 1977 and was a member of the investigative team in Arizona that led to the founding of Investigative Reporters and Editors (I.R.E.). He joined ABC News in 1978, where he helped launch the newsmagazine "20/20" and served as a producer-reporter and director of investigations for the ABC news division. In 1983, Bergman joined the CBS program "60 Minutes," where he served as staff producer for fourteen years. From 1996 to 1999 he worked for CBS News as the network's senior investigative producer, where he initiated several joint projects with the New York Times and was involved in the early planning for "60 Minutes II."

Bergman currently serves as a contract reporter and consultant on television production to the New York Times. He is a visiting professor at the Graduate School of Journalism at the University of California, Berkeley.

Zachary W. Carter, panelist

Zachary Carter has prosecuted and presided over criminal cases in the metropolitan New York area for twenty-five years. Most recently, he was U.S. attorney for the Eastern District of New York, where he served from 1993 to 1999.

Prior to his work as U.S. attorney, Carter served as a U.S. magistrate judge for the Eastern District of New York and as a judge of the Criminal Court of the City of New York. Currently, Mr. Carter is a litigation partner with the law firm of Dorsey & Whitney and is the co-chairman of the firm's White Collar Litigation Practice Group.

Steven W. Casteel

He is Chief of Intelligence, DEA. In his almost three decade career with DEA, he has worked in key anti-drug operations throughout the western hemisphere. In the late 1980s he supervised DEA's jungle suppression activities in Bolivia, and in 1996, he became Associate Special Agent in Charge in DEA's Houston office. There he supervised over 1200 miles of the Texas-Mexico border. Mr. Casteel became DEA Chief of Intelligence in July 1999.

David Cole, moderator

A professor at Georgetown University Law Center, David Cole is a volunteer staff attorney for the Center for Constitutional Rights, the legal affairs correspondent for "The Nation," and a commentator on NPR News' "All Things Considered(." A graduate of Yale University and Yale Law School, he has litigated many civil rights and civil liberties cases, including Texas v. Johnson--which extended First Amendment protection to flag-burning--and National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley, involving the denial of funding to controversial performance artist Karen Finley. In 1997, "American Lawyer" named him one of the top forty-five public sector lawyers under the age of forty-five.

Cole is the author of No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System" (New Press, 1999), and Terrorism and the Constitution: Sacrificing Civil Liberties in the Name of National Security (First Amendment Foundation, 1999).

Sam Dash, symposium chairman

Sam Dash, professor of law and director of the Institute of Criminal Law and Procedure at Georgetown University Law Center, is an internationally recognized lawyer and scholar in the administration of criminal justice and professional responsibility. Dash's practicing law career includes positions as federal prosecutor in the Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice, as district attorney of Philadelphia, and as criminal defense trial and appellate lawyer in Philadelphia and other jurisdictions throughout the country.

Dash is best known nationally for his work as chief counsel of the Senate Watergate Committee in 1973 and 1974. In 1976, he served as special investigator for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania surrounding the firing of the special prosecutor appointed to investigate police corruption in Philadelphia. He was chief counsel to the Alaskan Senate impeachment proceedings against the governor of Alaska in 1986 and special counsel to the president of the Senate of Puerto Rico from 1983 to 1992 in the investigation of the political murders at Cerro Maravilla. More recently, he was appointed outside independent ethics counsel to the independent counsel in the Whitewater Investigation.

Dash founded and was the second president of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and was elected chairperson of the Section on Criminal Justice of the American Bar Association in 1970. He served as chair of the ABA Special Committee on Criminal Justice in a Free Society, which published the report "Criminal Justice in Crisis," often known as the Dash Report.

Mathea Falco, panelist

Mathea Falco, J.D., is president of Drug Strategies, a non-profit research institute in Washington, D.C. that promotes effective approaches to the nation's drug problems. The author of The Making of a Drug Free America: Programs That Work (Times Books, 1994), Falco comments frequently on drug policy in the media and in public speeches across the country.

Until 1993, Falco was director of health policy for the Department of Public Health, Cornell University Medical College in New York City. From 1977 to 1981, she was assistant secretary of state for International Narcotics Matters. She also previously served as chief counsel and staff director for the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee Juvenile Delinquency Subcommittee, special assistant to the president of the Drug Abuse council, and senior associate of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Falco has served on the Board of Overseers of Harvard University; the Board of Trustees of Radcliffe College; the national boards of Girl Scouts, U.S.A.; Big Brothers of America; the International Women's Health Coalitions; the Ploughshares Fund; and the National Council on Crime and Delinquency. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Raymond Kelly, panelist

Raymond Kelly is commissioner of U.S. Customs Service, the agency responsible for collecting revenue from U.S. imports; protecting U.S. borders against the illegal importation of narcotics and other contraband; enforcing laws intended to prevent illegal trade practices and laws to prevent the export of high-technology products and weapons; and the processing of more than 450 million people entering the United States each year.

Prior to his current appointment, Kelly served as the U.S. Department of Treasury's under secretary for enforcement, directing supervisory authority over the U.S. Customs Service; the U.S. Secret Service; the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center; the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; and the Office of Foreign Assets Control.

Kelly began his career in public service in the New York City Police Department, serving in twenty-five commands before becoming commissioner of police in 1992. In 1997, Kelly was elected vice president of the Americas for INTERPOL. A former Marine who served in Vietnam, Kelly retired as a colonel from the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve.

Matthew Maher, panelist

Matthew Maher retired from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in 1994 as director of International Operations, with responsibility for the DEA's seventy-two offices in fifty-one countries. Maher's previous DEA experience included twenty-four years of service in both the United States and abroad, including Southeast Asia and Europe.

As a Senior Fellow with the National Strategy Information Center (NSIC), Maher has been involved with the creation and implementation of the Georgetown Executive Leadership Seminar, which presents strategic approaches to dealing with transnational crime to select groups of high-ranking government and private sector representatives from around the world.

Since retiring from the DEA, Maher has been active providing business and security consulting services to various governmental and private sector organizations with an emphasis on international programs and strategic initiatives.

Barry R. McCaffrey, luncheon speaker

Barry McCaffrey was confirmed by unanimous vote of the U.S. Senate as the director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) on 29 February 1996. He serves as a member of the President's Cabinet, the President's Drug Policy Council, and the National Security Council for drug-related issues. By law, the director certifies the $19.2 billion federal drug control budget and develops the U.S. National Drug Control Strategy.

Prior to confirmation as ONDCP director, he was the commander-in-chief of the U.S. Armed Forces Southern Command coordinating national security operations in Latin America. During his military career, he served overseas for thirteen years, which included four combat tours: Dominican Republic, Vietnam (twice), and Iraq. At retirement from active duty, he was the most highly decorated and youngest four-star general in the U.S. Army. During Operation Desert Storm, he commanded the 24th Infantry Division and led the 370-kilometer "left hook" attack into the Euphrates River Valley. General McCaffrey served as the JCS assistant to General Colin Powell and supported the chairman as the staff advisor to the secretary of state and the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations.

Robert G. Newman, panelist

Dr. Robert G. Newman has played a major role in developing and directing addiction treatment programs in the United States and abroad. Dr. Newman planned and implemented the New York City Department of Health Methadone Maintenance and Ambulatory Detoxification Programs. As an official advisor to the Government of Hong Kong in 1975, he helped design its addiction treatment program and the Central Registry for Drug Addicts. In addition, Dr. Newman has served as an advisor on addiction-related issues to the World Health Organization and governments in Australia, Asia, and Europe.

Newman is president and chief executive officer of continuum Health Partners, Inc., a corporation that controls four major medical institutions in the metropolitan New York region including Beth Israel Medical Center, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, The Long Island College Hospital and The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary. Dr. Newman is also professor of epidemiology and social medicine and professor of psychiatry at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University.

Lynn M. Paltrow, panelist

Lynn M. Paltrow is the program director of National Advocates for Pregnant Women (NAPW), a national campaign on behalf of pregnant and parenting women and their children. Recognized in 1991 by the National law Journal as one of the "100 Most Influential Lawyers in America," Paltrow is a leading national litigator and strategist in cases involving the intersection of reproductive freedom issues and the war on drugs.

Paltrow was lead counsel in cases across the country challenging the prosecution of pregnant women who used drugs and court ordered interventions on pregnant women. She also filed the first federal civil rights lawsuit challenging a policy of arresting pregnant women and is co-counsel on this case to be heard this fall in the U.S. Supreme Court.

Paltrow has served as a senior staff attorney at the ACLU's Reproductive Freedom Project, as director of special litigation at the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, and as director of public affairs for Planned Parenthood of New York City. She is the recipient of the Arthur Garfield Hays Civil Liberties Fellowship and the Georgetown Women's law and Public Policy Fellowship.

Greg Passic, panelist

Greg Passic retired from a law enforcement career after serving twenty-seven years as a special agent of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the U.S. Department of Treasury's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). His work has included permanent assignments in the United States and Europe specifically targeting organized crime and money laundering. During his career, he was directly involved confiscating more than $1 billion that had previously been considered by trafficking organizations as successfully laundered.

In 1984, Passic opened the DEA's first office in Switzerland. Later, he served as chief of DEA's Financial Operations, where he was responsible for developing and implementing the DEA's worldwide drug money laundering strategy. As an advisor to the director of FinCEN, he had an active role in the development of several U.S. Department of Justice/U.S. Department of Treasury working groups focusing on Colombian money laundering.

Passic is presently an expert consultant on international money laundering and has testified before Congress about proposed solutions to the Colombian money laundering issue.

Howard Safir, panelist

In his four years as police commissioner of the City of New York (1996 - 2000), Howard Safir achieved a thirty-eight-percent reduction in major crime and reduced homicides by forty-four percent--a success he attributes to a comprehensive fugitive strategy and thirty-nine major anti-drug initiatives established throughout the city. In addition, Safir created model blocks in each borough to prevent the return of eradicated drug dealing and introduced the largest Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program in the world.

Safir began his law enforcement career in 1965 as a special agent to the New York office of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, a forerunner of the DEA. In 1977, he was appointed assistant director of the DEA, and later served as chief of the Witness Security Division, U.S. Marshals Service. In 1984, he was named associate director of operations, U.S. Marshals Service, and in 1994 he was appointed the city's fire commissioner.

Kurt L. Schmoke, panelist

Kurt L. Schmoke was mayor of Baltimore from 1987 to 1999. During his tenure, he supported and instituted innovative programs increasing literacy, promoting home ownership, providing housing, and revitalizing neighborhoods. Schmoke's efforts made Baltimore a national model for neighborhood revitalization and led to recognition by the Clinton administration as a "top performer" among the nation's Empowerment Zone projects.

Schmoke is chairman of the American Bar Association's Council on Racial and Ethnic Justice, an organization of attorneys seeking to end racial profiling and pushing to reform U.S. drug policy, among other goals. Schmoke's career as a practicing attorney includes positions in Baltimore as an assistant U.S. attorney and state's attorney, the city's chief prosecuting officer. He is now a partner with the international law firm of Wilmer, Cutler, and Pickering.

Martin Smith, series producer, FRONTLINE's Drug Wars

Martin Smith has contributed to FRONTLINE over the years as both an award-winning producer and reporter. As the series' senior producer from 1990 to 1994, Smith supervised the work of independent filmmakers and oversaw the production of "quick turnaround" news programs.

From 1985 to 1989, Smith worked as an independent producer. During this time he served as executive producer of PBS's four part series, "Inside Gorbachev's USSR," which was awarded the duPont-Columbia Gold Baton and a George Polk Award. He also frequently produced programs for FRONTLINE, including "The Real Life of Ronald Reagan," "Who Pays for AIDS?" and "The Bombing of West Philly." His investigation into private fundraising for the Nicaraguan contras, "Who's Running this War?" won the 1986 George Polk Award. Smith also produced "Revolution in Nicaragua" for FRONTLINE's Peabody Award-winning series "Crisis in Central America."

Since 1994, Smith has produced specials for ABC's Peter Jennings, including "Pot of Gold," an investigation into the domestic marijuana economy.

Eric E. Sterling, panelist

From 1979 to 1989, Eric E. Sterling was counsel to the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary. As a staff member of the Subcommittee on Crime, he was responsible for addressing such issues as drug enforcement, gun control, money laundering, organized crime, pornography, terrorism, corrections, and military assistance to law enforcement. Sterling was a principal aide in developing the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 and the Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988 and worked on comprehensively rewriting the Federal Criminal Code during the 96th Congress.

Today, Sterling is president of the Criminal Justice Policy Foundation, a private non-profit educational organization promoting solutions to criminal justice problems, and often serves as an advisor and consultant on U.S. drug policy and criminal justice issues to civic organizations, professional associations, prosecutors, judges, and attorneys around the nation. He is one of the founders of FAMM--Families Against Mandatory Minimum, and the founder of FEAR--Forfeiture Endangers American Rights.

Robert Stutman, panelist

A leading advocate for drug prevention and education, Robert Stutman spent twenty-five years as one of America's highest profile drug busters. As special agent in charge of the New York office of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), Stutman launched more than 5,000 investigations, leading to more than 15,000 arrests with a conviction rate in federal and state courts exceeding ninety percent. During his tenure, the New York office was responsible for the seizure of more than twenty-five tons of cocaine, more than $400 million worth of drug traffickers' assets, and almost half the total amount of heroin seized in the U.S. during that time period.

Stutman left the DEA in 1990 to found Employee Information Services, Inc., the national's largest management consulting firm specializing in the design and implementation of substance abuse prevention programs for all industries. A recipient of numerous awards from law enforcement agencies throughout the world, he was appointed by the U.S. Congress to a nine-member panel studying national drug policy.

Robert Sweet, panelist

Judge Robert Sweet was appointed U.S. District Judge for the Southern District of New York in 1978. Assistant U.S. attorney for the Southern District of New York from 1953 to 1955, Sweet also served as deputy mayor of New York from 1966 to 1969. In addition, Judge Sweet was the chairman of the Southern District of New York's Committee on Judicial Improvements and the Civil Justice Reform Act Advisory Group.

Carlos Toro, panelist

Carlos Toro was a childhood friend of Medellin drug cartel leader Carlos Lehder. Enticed by Lehder's exciting lifestyle of wealth, women, and meetings with some of the world's most powerful leaders, Toro left his career as a TV cameraman in the United States to join his friend in the lucrative cocaine trade.

Toro's life quickly disintegrated into dangerous multimillion-dollar drug deals, kidnappings, accusations of murder, and an eventual traumatic falling-out with Lehder and the Medellin cartel. Fearing for his life, Toro joined the U.S. government's witness protection program and, working for the DEA, helped put Carlos Lehder and many of his associates in prison.

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