Formation of the College Board
Formation of the College Entrance Examination Board in 1900. This
organization, set up by presidents of 12 leading universities administers
admissions tests. The purpose is to standardize the admissions process
administratively and to force New England boarding schools to adopt a uniform
curriculum. In 1901, the first College Boards were conducted. Exams were done
in essay format for specific subject areas. Sample some questions from the
Invention of the IQ
A French psychologist, Alfred Binet, is credited with inventing the first IQ
test, a test that could measure one's intelligence. Binet's intent was to
identify slow learners by determining their mental ages.
World War I
Experimentation with army IQ Test
During the first World War, IQ testing advances greatly when Robert Yerkes, a
Harvard professor, persuaded the army to let him administer IQ tests to nearly
two million recruits. Yerkes wants to use tests to choose officer candidates
and help the IQ movement build up a record of statistical evidence. The
resulting Alpha and Beta tests mark the first time an IQ test has mass results.
The goal of IQ testers is to select the most intelligent people of society, not
necessarily to reform education.
Carl Brigham invents the SAT
Carl C. Brigham, who worked with Yerkes on the Army IQ tests, publishes a book,
A Study of American Intelligence, on the results. Brigham's book
analyzes the findings by race and concludes that American education is
declining "and will proceed with an accelerating rate as the racial mixture
becomes more and more extensive."
Around this time, Brigham also administers his own objective version of the
Army test to Princeton freshmen as well as to applicants to Cooper Union, an
all-scholarship technical college in New York City. The College Board then
puts him in charge of a committee to develop a test that could be used by a
wider group of schools. This test becomes the SAT. In 1926 the SAT is
administered to high school students for the first time. Sample some
questions from 1926 test.
Conant and the use of SAT for scholarship programs
James Conant is appointed president of Harvard. His assistants, Henry Chauncey
and Wilbur Bender are given the task of figuring out a way to select public
school students for a Harvard scholarship program. They travel to Princeton in
the end of 1933, where they meett Brigham. Starting in 1934, the SAT is used to
select students for Harvard scholarships. A year later, Harvard begins
requiring all candidates to take the SAT.
In the same year, IBM machines descended from the Markograph are used to score
tests for the NY State Regents and Providence, Rhode Island public schools. By
the end of the thirties, the SAT was used as a scholarship test for all Ivy
The SAT, a tool of the meritocracy
On January 24 Brigham dies at age 52.His death removed the main obstacle for
the testing field to be more cohesive. On April 2, the Army-Navy College
Qualifying Test is administered to at least 316,000 high school seniors all
over the country proving that standardized multiple-choice tests can be given
to a mass group.
In May, Conant publishes the third in a series of articles for the Atlantic
Monthly entitled "Wanted: American Radicals." He wrote that the American
radical "believes in equality of opportunity, not equality of rewards."
Creation of Educational Testing Service
Educational Testing Service (ETS), the new testing agency, officially opened
for business in Princeton on Jaunary 1st. Henry Chauncey is
president and Conant is made chairman of the board. The same year,
before ETS is even chartered, a branch office was established in Berkeley,
California. Chauncey's hope is to initiate relations with the University of
California and get them to adopt the SAT as a requirement.
In 1952, the current structure of questions for the verbal section of the SAT
is established: reading comprehension, analogies, antonyms, sentence completion
In 1957, the number of students taking the SAT every year passes
half a million.
In 1959, a new testing organization is formed, American
College Testing (ACT) becoming ETS' leading rival.
University of California system signs on to the SAT.
The University of California system begins requiring applicants to take the
SAT, becoming ETS' biggest client.