People fleeing Russia's invasion of Ukraine rest in a temporary refugee centre in Chisinau

How bad is Ukraine’s humanitarian crisis?

Russian President Vladimir Putin’s invasion of Ukraine has created the largest humanitarian crisis Europe has seen in decades. With hundreds of thousands of people fleeing from the escalating conflict, neighboring countries and international organizations are mobilizing to condemn Russia’s war and provide relief for the growing number of refugees.

READ MORE: How to help people in Ukraine and refugees fleeing the conflict with Russia

What’s the current humanitarian situation in Ukraine?

According to the U.N. refugee agency, ten million people, or about a quarter of the population, have been displaced; of that, nearly four million have fled to neighboring countries, including Hungary, Moldova, and Poland. The United Nations is preparing for up to seven million internally displaced persons and as many as seven million refugees, which would be the largest war-related mass migration since the Balkan Wars of the 1990s. As of March 20, at least 902 civilians have died and 1,459 have been injured, though the actual figures are likely to be much higher.

READ MORE: 1.2 million people have fled Ukraine, according to U.N. report

Many Russian attacks have hit highly populated areas, causing civilians to seek refuge in subway stations and leaving hundreds of thousands without electricity, water, or basic supplies. Experts also worry about Russia’s increasing reliance on artillery, cluster munitions, rockets, and other weapons that can devastate civilian areas, including in the major cities of Chernihiv, Kharkiv, Kyiv, and Mariupol. They say this escalation will likely lead to greater civilian casualties and infrastructure damage.

Meanwhile, COVID-19 transmission remains high in the country and only about 36 percent of Ukrainians are fully vaccinated against the disease. With the country’s health services already stretched thin, accessing treatment will be increasingly difficult.

How are European countries responding?

Europe has been quick to respond, and experts say it is the biggest show of European mobilization in recent years. Poland, already home to an estimated 1.5 million Ukrainians (both naturalized citizens and temporary migrant workers), has welcomed more than half of all new refugees, at more than 2.2 million. To prepare, the country has set up temporary housing, hospitals, and reception centers that offer food, information, and medical supplies.

The remaining refugees have fled to Belarus, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Slovakia, and other parts of Europe. About 7.5 percent of new refugees, or roughly 271,000 people, have headed east to Russia. Officials in Ireland announced that their country would waive all visa requirements for Ukrainians seeking refuge there, while the Czech Republic lifted its entry ban and COVID-19 restrictions for incoming refugees.

WATCH: Russian forces bombard targets across Ukraine as official warns ‘worst is yet to come’

At the European Union (EU) level, officials unanimously backed a plan to activate the bloc’s Temporary Protection Directive, a never-before-used law that would allow people fleeing Ukraine to enter EU states for up to three years without applying for asylum. Ukrainian nationals have been able to enter the EU without a visa since 2017, meaning that they can seek asylum in any member state. Separately, the United States has said its troops in Poland will be available to help with refugee evacuation.

Some analysts note that this response stands in contrast to the refusal by many EU countries to grant blanket asylum to the more than one million refugees that began arriving from Africa and the Middle East in 2015, or to the tens of thousands of mostly Iraqi refugees who sought entry at the Belarus-Poland border beginning in mid-2021. Other critics point to the closed-door policy toward those fleeing the humanitarian situation in Yemen and the reports of some Africans and Asians living in Ukraine being refused transportation and entry into neighboring EU countries.

What role is the United Nations playing?

Despite Russia’s permanent seat on the Security Council, the United Nations has expressed broad opposition to Moscow’s war.

On February 25, eleven of fifteen Security Council members voted in favor of a U.S.-led resolution strongly condemning the war and called on Russia to immediately withdraw its forces from Ukraine; Russia’s veto, however, blocked the measure. (China, India, and the United Arab Emirates abstained.) A week later, an emergency session of the full U.N. General Assembly—the first such session since 1997—voted 141-5 in favor of similar text denouncing the war.

READ MORE: Biden seeks $10 billion for aid to Ukraine, $22.5 billion for COVID expenses

At the same time, many UN agencies are taking action. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres swiftly appointed a crisis coordinator for Ukraine and announced $20 million in aid from the UN Central Emergency Response Fund. Likewise, the UN refugee agency is seeking to raise $1.7 billion for humanitarian assistance.

This article originally ran on the Council on Foreign Relations website.