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Australia’s bushfires have devastated the country’s wildlife and habitats. Experts say the very existence of some species whose populations were already at vulnerable levels may now hang in the balance. Science correspondent Miles O’Brien reports from Australia on the country’s efforts to rescue animals, why it will take so long for their ecosystems to recover and the role of climate change.
Australia's bushfires have devastated that country's wildlife and their habitats.
Experts say the lives of some species, whose populations were already at vulnerable levels, may hang in the balance.
Science correspondent Miles O'Brien has this report from down under on efforts to rescue animals.
It is part of our coverage on the Leading Edge of science and technology. And it was produced in collaboration with the weather app MyRadar.
And a warning:
Viewers may find some images disturbing.
Fresh out of veterinary school in August, Caitlin McFadden is enduring a taxing trial by fire.
Oh, I know. I know.
This little guy is an Australian possum, a marsupial related to kangaroos, who has earned the name Hissy Pants.
He's got good reason to make all the fuss. His paws are burnt and bloody after a fast-moving fire ripped through his home in the Conjola National Park in Southeastern Australia.
The blood and the horrible looking of the paws is actually a good thing, because it means that there's new cell growth, essentially.
So, it's healing?
Yes, we're seeing healing, yes.
Hissy is one of about 20 animals injured in this season's record fires that have made their way here to the Milton Veterinary Clinic.
I know we have all had a little bit of a cry about animals, especially the ones that come in, when, straight away, you just know that that's it. There's just nothing you can possibly do to help them.
Australia's epic fire season has taken a devastating toll on animals.
We just pulled him out of the fire.
One scientist estimates perhaps a billion could be dead, but no one really knows for sure.
Sally Sherwen is director of wildlife conservation and science at Zoos Victoria.
So, a lot of these species that live in these habitats that have already been at critically low numbers as a result of other threats in the landscape and fragmented populations, they were already at very low, vulnerable levels, and one event like this does have the potential to completely wipe them out.
It is bad news for a species hanging on for dear life.
These are gray-headed flying foxes, one of the world's largest bat species. They are threatened, their numbers on a precipitous decline, mostly due to lost habitat.
They're not doing great. They are protected, but this summer has been a disaster. And we may have lost between 10 percent and 20 percent of the remaining species.
Megan Davidson is CEO of a conservation group called Wildlife Victoria. Flying foxes are particularly sensitive to heat. Record-setting temperatures this summer in the midst of a three-year drought prompted a huge die-off of these animals, even before the worst of the fires.
I mean, an unimaginable amount of forest has been burned. We're waiting to see what that means for the survival of the species in the next few months.
Flying foxes are pollinators that travel great distances, much farther than honey bees, meaning they play a critical role in rejuvenating blackened forests.
In some ways, fire-scarred forests bounce back quickly. But it is more complex and much slower than I thought.
We assume that the bush bounces back. We see the green returning to the forest. But some of the critical assets that the animals need will take centuries to get back.
Fire ecologist Mike Clarke is a professor of zoology with La Trobe University in Melbourne. He showed me why many species won't be returning to the charred forests anytime soon. Their homes are gone, and not easily replaced.
These are the kinds of hollows that are crucial as den sites or as refuges for native wildlife in Australia, but we don't have anything like a woodpecker that can create a hollow.
Without woodpeckers, tree limbs are hollowed out only with fungus and termites. And, here, most of the trees are hardwood eucalyptus.
So just to grow to that size of a log, you're probably looking at, at least 100 years. Then it falls off the tree, and the termites and the fungi have to do their bit hollowing it out, and you might be looking at another 50 or 100 years.
A new generation of trees will also have a hard time taking root. Acacia trees bear tough armored seeds that are dependent on fire.
That is hard as it can be.
What it requires to germinate is for the seed coat to be broken, and that only happens typically after fire.
But the climate emergency is making bushfires more frequent, not enough time for the trees to mature enough to produce seeds.
This is different. Fires have been more extensive, more intense and more frequent.
And all of those attributes of fire are crucially important in terms of what the fauna have evolved to cope with. We have changed the dials, and we can't expect them to simply adapt. That's not how evolution works.
In the meantime, a small army of committed volunteers is doing what it can to help orphaned and injured animals.
Doug Thron is a California-based professional drone pilot and environmentalist.
I kept seeing the feed coming up on the news of the burned-up koalas. And I was like, well, I'm going to Australia, I'm sure, because, yes, it just did literally actually — yes, it brought me to tears to see the little koalas all burned up.
So, now he is helping find animals in need here using his one-of-a-kind drone.
This kangaroo appears to be nursing burnt paws, but by the time vets with tranquilizer guns got there, they could not find the animal, hopefully good news.
In several other cases, Doug Thron's drone, able to detect the heat signatures of animals, has led to speedy rescues.
The most important part of an infrared drone is, it shaves off a huge amount of time, and it also allows accessibility where a human couldn't really walk into.
After a hurricane or a fire, that's the most important part, is getting to animals as quick as possible, because, oftentimes, they're going to die very quickly if somebody doesn't save them.
Somebody like Lorna King, a passionate animal lover in Bairnsdale, Victoria. She is nursing back to health an 11-month-old koala named Rivers.
He was just wandering alone on his own, no mother in sight. So, he was picked up by the rangers from the department and brought into the vet to be checked out. And they said, no, except for that tiny burn, he's fine.
Lorna is a well-regarded licensed animal rescue expert. The fires have kept her on the run. All kinds of wildlife are crawling out of the burned forest looking for food and shelter.
The day we met her, she was responding to a nervous homeowner with a snake in his garden.
See right below us?
That's where it keeps going in and out.
OK. Here he comes. It's only his head again. It's all right.
… the head. That's the reason I'm concerned.
She made quick work of it.
It's OK. It's OK, buddy. It's a nice little red-bellied black. Will kill you in a minute.
It's just one more reminder of the scope of this disaster.
I said to a friend of mine the other day, you know, how can we correct all this?
I was feeling despair. And I said, will we ever get it back? And he said, yes, but it will take a long time, because it's just ruined. Everything's gone, everything.
At least Rivers will likely survive, and find his way back to some unburned bush.
In the meantime, he was content to spend a little time in my lap, a sweet reminder of what is so precious and in such peril here.
For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm Miles O'Brien in Southeastern Australia.
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Miles O’Brien is a veteran, independent journalist who focuses on science, technology and aerospace.
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