war in europe

a kosovo chronology

how it was fought
ethnic cleansing
for moral values?

Although bombing did not begin until March 24, 1999, NATO's path to war in Kosovo wound its way through much of the region's troubled recent history.

The following chronology traces the roots of the war in Kosovo from Slobodan Milosevic's rise to power in the late 1980s and through the diplomatic gambles and military threats that failed to head off the conflict. It charts the escalation of the air war with Serbia and the steps that finally led to NATO's victory in early June 1999.

NOTE: This chronology also notes the contexts in which important decisions were made -- including President Clinton's impeachment scandal and U.S. military strikes against Iraq and Osama bin Laden.

1987 Slobodan Milosevic's power grows with trip to Kosovo. At large public rallies, Serb nationalists embrace him when he dramatically promises to defend their interests in the province.
1989 Milosevic engineers changes in the Serbian constitution that vastly reduce the provincial autonomy Kosovo has enjoyed since 1974. Other measures put tens of thousands of Kosovar Albanians out of work and restrict the activities of their cultural organizations. Rioting and protests by Kosovo Albanians ensue.
1991 The bloody break-up of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) begins as Slovenia and Croatia declare their independence. After a secret vote, ethnic Albanians proclaim the creation of their own Republic of Kosovo, though it earns little international recognition.
1992 War breaks out in Bosnia, after it too moves for independence. Several months after Europe, USA extends diplomatic recognition to the three major breakaway Yugoslav republics, but not Kosovo. In May, Kosovar Albanians elect literary scholar and pacifist Ibrahim Rugova president in unofficial elections. Rugova begins creating a shadow government.
Dec. 1992 In a secret "Christmas Warning," U.S. President George Bush informs Milosevic that Serbian aggression in Kosovo will bring unilateral US military response. Clinton administration reiterates the threat on several occasions through 1998.
1993 War in Bosnia continues, as "ethnic cleansing" spreads. NATO threatens airstrikes to defend "safe areas" created to protect Muslims.
1994 In April, NATO carries out first airstrikes in its history -- against Bosnian Serbs.
1995 More NATO airstrikes - along with a successful Croat/Muslim ground offensive - bring Bosnian Serbs to the negotiating table. On 21 Nov., the Dayton Accord ends war in Bosnia. Milosevic emerges as the region's power broker and NATO sees a lesson in its use of force. Kosovo issues, however, are left unresolved.
1996 The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) appears, and begins sporadic attacks against Serb authorities in Kosovo. Serbs ratchet up repression of student and ethnic movements in Kosovo.
Late 1996 Madeleine Albright named first female US Secretary of State. As UN ambassador, Albright had argued in favor of early military intervention in Bosnia.
1997 In October, violence escalates in Kosovo as Serbian security forces clamp down further on resistance and KLA steps up its attacks.

13 Jan. 1998 Renewed crisis in Iraq as President Saddam Hussein bans weapons team led by US inspector.
19-21 Jan. 1998 First Monica Lewinsky scandal stories appear in the press. Several days later Clinton denies affair with Lewinsky, saying "I did not have sexual relations with that woman....I never told anybody to lie."
23 Feb. 1998 US diplomat Robert Gelbard publicly calls KLA "without any question a terrorist group" -- a comment which some observers say Milosevic interprets as a green light to continue repression.
1 Mar. 1998 Rugova's shadow government reportedly urges Kosovar Albanians to defend themselves against the Serbs.
5-7 Mar. 1998 After KLA attacks on police, Serb security forces massacre over 50 members of the Jashari family in the village of Prekaz. In following weeks, tens of thousands rally in Pristina to protest massacre. Serbs respond with counter-demonstrations.
7 Mar. 1998 In Rome, Madeleine Albright declares "We are not going to stand by and watch the Serbian authorities do in Kosovo what they can no longer get away with doing in Bosnia."
9 Mar. 1998 "Contact Group" countries (US, UK, France, Germany, Italy and Russia) meet in London to discuss Kosovo. In a tense meeting, Gelbard meets with Milosevic in Belgrade.
23 Mar. 1998 Ibrahim Rugova re-elected "president" of Kosovo with 99% of vote in controversial elections boycotted by increasingly popular Kosovar Albanian hard-liners.
31 Mar. 1998 UN Security Council resolution 1160 condemns Yugoslavia's excessive use of force, imposes economic sanctions, and bans arms sales to Serbia.
1 Apr. 1998 Judge Susan Webber Wright dismisses Paula Jones's lawsuit.
21 Apr. 1998 FRY closes borders with Albania and Macedonia.
23 Apr. 1998 In national referendum, 95% of Serbs reject foreign mediation to solve the Kosovo crisis.
May 1998 Gelbard meets with KLA officials in Switzerland. Amb. Christopher Hill named US Special Envoy to Kosovo. Dayton Accord negotiator Richard Holbrooke travels to Belgrade. Talks lead to first-ever meeting between Rugova and Milosevic on May 15, though dialogue quickly breaks down.
28 May 1998 Rugova and other Kosovar Albanian officials arrive in Washington to meet with Clinton, Gore, Albright and advisors. In 29 May meeting in Oval Office, Rugova seeks Clinton's support for the Kosovar Albanians' cause.
31 May 1998 As many as 20 Kosovar Albanians killed in retaliation for death of a Serb policeman near Glogovac.
1 Jun. 1998 Rugova meets UN Sec. Gen. Kofi Annan in New York, requests UN/NATO intervention.
11 Jun. 1998 At NATO ministerial meeting, U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen urges NATO defense ministers to begin conceptual planning for potential intervention in Kosovo. Ministers decide to "send a signal" to Milosevic by conducting air exercises in the region.
12 Jun. 1998 Foreign ministers of Contact Group, plus Canada and Japan, meet in London and level more economic sanctions on FRY.
15 Jun. 1998 In the "Balkan Air Show," 85 NATO warplanes fly over Albania and Macedonia in show of force aimed at Milosevic.
16 Jun. 1998 Milosevic and Yeltsin meet in Moscow, issue joint statement approving idea of diplomatic observers in Kosovo.
23-24 Jun. 1998 Holbrooke meets with Milosevic. Travels to Kosovo, to talk directly with KLA commanders.
6 Jul. 1998 Kosovo Diplomatic Observer Mission begins monitoring operations in the province.
Early Aug. 1998 Serbian forces intensify their summer offensive, attack KLA and Kosovo Albanian villages in Drenica region, driving thousands into the hills.
5 Aug. 1998 Iraq ceases cooperation with UN inspectors.
7 Aug. 1998 Bombing of US embassies in Nairobi and Dar Es Salaam, apparently by operatives working for Osama Bin Laden.
17 Aug. 1998 After completing four hours of grand jury testimony, Clinton offers nationally televised admission of his "inappropriate relationship" with Lewinsky.
20 Aug. 1998 US launches cruise missile attack on Afghanistan and Sudan in response to Bin Laden's embassy bombings. In polls, significant numbers of Americans say they believe the attacks were staged to divert attention from the Lewinsky scandal.
1-2 Sept. 1998 At Clinton-Yeltsin summit in Moscow, Albright & Foreign Minister Ivanov together call for negotiations and an end to Serb offensive.
5 Sept. 1998 Former Senator Bob Dole (R-KS) and Asst. Sec. of State John Shattuck travel to Kosovo & Belgrade.
9 Sept. 1998 Independent Counsel Starr dramatically delivers 36 boxes of impeachment information to Congress.
9 Sept. 1998 Serb police begin to pull bodies of Kosovar Albanians and Serbs from a canal near the village of Glodjane. At least thirty-four bodies are eventually discovered, and suspicion falls on the KLA.
23 Sept. 1998 UN Security Council approves Resolution 1199 demanding cease-fire, Serb withdrawal and refugee return and calling for unspecified "additional measures" if Serbia refuses to comply.
24 Sept. 1998 In Vilamoura, Portugal, NATO Defense Ministers give NATO's Supreme Commander permission to issue an activation warning (ACTWARN) -- the first real step in preparation for airstrikes.
26 Sept. 1998 After more than a dozen Serb police are killed in fighting with the KLA, Serb security forces kill 35 villagers - including 21 members of a single family - in and around Gornje Obrinje.
30 Sept. 1998 At principals committee meeting, US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright pushes for airstrikes against Serbia. Administration briefs Capitol Hill on the plan. Meeting Congressional resistance, the Administration notes it has no plans to send ground troops to Kosovo, even as peacekeepers.
5 Oct. 1998 UN Sec. Gen. Kofi Annan reports FRY violations of UNSCR 1199.
5 Oct. 1998 House Judiciary Committee votes on party lines to recommend Clinton impeachment inquiry.
12 Oct. 1998 NATO approves an "activation order" (ACTORD) authorizing preparations for a limited bombing campaign.
13 Oct. 1998 After more than a week of negotiations, Holbrooke secures the "October Agreement." Agreement calls for Serbian compliance with UN Resolution 1199, a cease-fire, troop withdrawals, elections, substantial autonomy for Kosovo and other confidence-building measures. NATO temporarily suspends - but does not rescind - its ACTORD to allow for Serbian compliance.
16 Oct. 1998 Milosevic agrees to allow unarmed OSCE cease-fire monitors - the Kosovo Verification Mission (KVM) -- into Kosovo. NATO extends ACTORD deadline until 27 October.
24 Oct. 1998 NATO Supreme Commander Gen. Wesley Clark and Chairman of the NATO Military Committee Gen. Klaus Naumann travel to Belgrade. Milosevic agrees to reduce FRY forces in Kosovo to pre-March 1998 levels.
27 Oct. 1998 In what appears to be a vindication of NATO's strategy, Serbia withdraws thousands of Serb security forces from Kosovo. Thousands of Kosovar Albanians begin to descend from the hills as winter threatens.
31 Oct. 1998 Iraq halts all cooperation with UN arms inspection team.
Nov.1998 Unarmed international KVM monitors under American Ambassador William Walker begin deploying in Kosovo.
5 Nov. 1998 In US, Democrats make surprising gains in Congress, through Republicans maintain control.
11 Nov. 1998 UN staff evacuated from Baghdad as US rushes aircraft carriers to the region and threatens strikes against Iraq.
13 Nov. 1998 Serbia warns Macedonia against allowing NATO to position troops on its territory.
19 Nov. 1998 Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr testifies before Congress for 12 hours. The following day, Judiciary Committee chairman Henry Hyde issues new subpoenas and signals committee may widen its probe of impeachable offenses.
Early Dec. 1998 The House of Representatives prepares, approves and begins debate on articles of impeachment.
Dec. 1998 Border clashes and skirmishes in Kosovo draw new US condemnations. NATO approves and begins deploying in Macedonia an "extraction force" (XFOR) to defend peacekeepers in Kosovo.
17 Dec. 1998 US and Britain begin four days of limited airstrikes against Iraq.
19 Dec. 1998 President Clinton impeached by House of Representatives.
23-27 Dec. 1998 FRY security forces battle KLA and attack villages near Podujevo.

14 Jan. 1999 Senate trial phase of impeachment begins.
15 Jan. 1999 At meeting of top US foreign policy advisers -- the "Principals Committee" -- Albright pushes for US/NATO military ultimatum, but is frustrated by colleagues's resistance.
15 Jan. 1999 The Racak Massacre. In retaliation for KLA attack on 4 policemen, Serb security forces kill 45 Kosovo Albanians. KVM Director William Walker arrives on scene following day, forcefully blames Serbia in front of television cameras. Milosevic refuses to allow war crimes prosecutor Judge Louise Arbour to visit Racak.
18 Jan. 1999 Milosevic orders Walker out of the country, though he retracts the expulsion order under international pressure 21 Jan.
19 Jan. 1999 In light of Racak massacre, National Security Adviser Sandy Berger reconvenes Principals Committee. Albright's push for military ultimatum wins the day. At same time, NATO SACEUR Wesley Clark and NATO military council chairman Gen. Klaus Naumann meet with Milosevic in Serbia in tense seven-hour meeting. Milosevic claims Racak was staged by the KLA, calls Clark a war criminal.
27 Jan. 1999 Joint statement on Kosovo by Albright and Russia's Ivanov. Clinton meets with foreign policy team to discuss post-Racak strategy.
29 Jan. 1999 In London, Contact Group foreign ministers issues ultimatum to Kosovo Albanians and Serbs, calling them to begin peace talks at in France at Rambouillet on Feb. 6.
30 Jan. 1999 NATO renews its military threat, reapproves its ACTORD (force activation order).
Early Feb. 1999 Senate trial of Clinton continues.
1 Feb. 1999 Kosovo Albanians announce they will participate in talks in France; KLA agrees to participate following day.
6 Feb. 1999 Rambouillet peace talks begin in France, though Milosevic refuses to attend.
11 Feb. 1999 Clinton meets with foreign policy team to discuss "NATO planning, US costs and KFOR exit strategy."
12 Feb. 1999 Impeachment effort fails, Clinton acquitted in the Senate.
13 Feb. 1999 The day after his impeachment drama ends, Clinton calls Congressional leaders to discuss Rambouillet, possible US role in NATO-led Kosovo force. In a radio address, Clinton notes his intention to send 4,000 U.S. peacekeepers to Kosovo after a cease-fire and a Serb withdrawal have been won.
20 Feb. 1999 Madeleine Albright arrives in France for last days of talks, attempts to salvage negotiations. Albanian delegation continues to refuse to sign agreement.
23 Feb. 1999 Amidst great allied frustration, Rambouillet talks pause to allow Albanian delegation to return home for consultations. Clinton meets with Congressional leaders to discuss Rambouillet, US KFOR role.
8 Mar. 1999 Senator Dole returns to Macedonia to lobby KLA to sign Rambouillet agreement.
10 Mar. 1999 Holbrooke and Hill meet with Milosevic to urge him to accept NATO settlement.
12 Mar. 1999 KLA reportedly ready to sign a peace pact. However Hill reports to Albright, Cohen, Berger, and Joint Chiefs Chairman Hugh Shelton that there is "zero point zero percent" chance of a deal on the Serb side.
14 Mar. 1999 Delegation led by Deputy Sec. of State Strobe Talbott travels to European capitals to confer on Kosovo.
15 Mar. 1999 Peace talks begun at Rambouillet reconvene at Avenue Kléber conference center in Paris.
16 Mar. 1999 CIA warns of imminent Serbian offensive. FRY asks Interpol to arrest KLA leader Hashim Thaci.
18 Mar. 1999 In Paris, Kosovo Albanian delegates finally cave in and sign autonomy plan. Serbs refuse, and begin "winter live fire" exercises in Kosovo the next day.
19 Mar. 1999 In light of failure of peace talks and massing of Serb troops of Kosovo's border, Clinton meets with foreign policy team to review NATO plans & strategy.
20 Mar. 1999 Kosovo Verification Mission leaves Kosovo. Serbian forces quickly move in, begin a new offensive in northeastern and north-central Kosovo. Western embassies begin withdrawing dependents and non-essential staff from Belgrade.
22 Mar. 1999 In a last ditch effort to avoid airstrikes, Holbrooke is sent to Serbia to deliver a final ultimatum. Meeting fails to draw any concessions from an embittered Milosevic.
24 Mar. 1999 The Kosovo air war begins. In televised address, Clinton rules out the use of ground troops to fight a war in Kosovo. Officials hope for a quick resolution, in line with their experience in Bosnia prior to the Dayton Agreement. To signal Russia's displeasure, Prime Minister Primakov cancels trip to Washington in mid-flight.
25 Mar. 1999 Serbian forces reportedly kill more than 60 Kosovar Albanian men near the village of Bela Crvka. FRY breaks off diplomatic relations with United States, Germany, Great Britain and France.
27 Mar. 1999 Russian Duma condemns NATO attack, postpones Start II treaty vote. A US F-117 Stealth bomber is shot down, raising concerns about the vulnerability of even the US's most advanced aircraft. Kosovar Albanians are loaded on special "refugee trains" and sent to the border with Macedonia.
1 Apr. 1999 Serbian television broadcasts images of three US soldiers taken while on patrol in Macedonia, feeding fears about the use of ground troops.
3 Apr. 1999 Central Belgrade hit by NATO missiles for first time. Air commanders bomb FRY and Serbian Interior Ministries as they seek to make clear their determination to "go after the head of the snake" in Serbia.
4 Apr. 1999 With much fanfare, officials decide to deploy 24 Apache attack helicopters (Task Force Hawk) and 2,000 protecting troops in Albania, ostensibly within 8 to ten days. Delays ensue, as policymakers debate whether the helicopters move the US closer to ground war and engineers scramble to build them a base.
6 Apr. 1999 First major NATO mishap: three missiles hit a residential neighborhood in the mining town of Aleksinac, killing several civilians. Milosevic calls for an (Orthodox) Easter cease-fire and willingness to guarantee "substantial autonomy" for Kosovo. NATO, State Dept. reject offer, and spokesman James Rubin announces conditions for end to NATO bombing.
8 Apr. 1999 German Defense Minister Rudolf Scharping publicizes the existence of a document several pages long detailing the Serbian "Potkova" (Horseshoe) Operation -- allegedly a detailed plan to expel ethnic Albanians months in the making.
9 Apr. 1999 Russian President Yeltsin speaks out against bombing and possibility of a NATO ground war against Serbia, warns that Russia could be forced into a European or worldwide war. Gennadi Seleznev, President of the Duma, claims that Yeltsin has ordered nuclear missiles to target Serbia's attackers -- a charge that Yeltsin's spokesman later denies.
10 Apr. 1999 NATO approves "Allied Harbor" deployment of 8,000 men in Albania, ostensibly to aid humanitarian and refugee efforts.
14 Apr. 1999 Yeltsin appoints Chernomyrdin as special envoy to the Balkans. Move appears to herald a Russian shift on Kosovo, and desire to salvage relationship with the West. Hard-line Prime Minister Primakov fired from Prime Minister's position one month later. News breaks of mistaken US/NATO strike on column of Kosovo Albanian refugees, reportedly killing at least 60.
20 Apr. 1999 First direct clash between Albanian and Serb armies. First Apache helicopters begin to arrive in Albania, though officials seek to ratchet down expectations regarding their use.
21 Apr. 1999 NATO bombs Socialist Party headquarters in Belgrade. Attack destroys offices of several companies with ties to Milosevic's inner circle, including television operations run by Milosevic's daughter and wife. Bombs also strike one of Milosevic's private residences. Targets had been subject of complex, contentious negotiations between allies. On eve of NATO summit, Clinton and Blair meet for three-hour White House dinner.
22 Apr. 1999 NATO's 50th anniversary celebrations begin in Washington. Though squabbling continues in the wings, allies maintain public unity, and move for an intensification of the air war.
23 Apr. 1999 NATO attacks Serbian television in Belgrade, causing at least 10 deaths.
25 Apr. 1999 With Summit underway, Yeltsin phones Clinton to discuss Kosovo, reopen contacts between Gore and Chernomyrdin.
28 Apr. 1999 House of Representatives votes largely along party lines to reject a resolution supporting air war, demonstrating continuing mistrust of Clinton and his Balkans policy.
28 Apr. 1999 NATO missile lands near Sofia, in Bulgaria, though no one is killed.
29 Apr. 1999 At the International Court of Justice in The Hague, the FRY files suit against the NATO allies.
30 Apr. 1999 NATO strikes on Belgrade continue, targeting FRY Defense and Army headquarters. Chernomyrdin meets Milosevic for 6 hours in Belgrade. Jesse Jackson arrives in Belgrade to discuss release of 3 captured US servicemen.
1 May 1999 NATO accidentally bombs a civilian bus on bridge near Pristina.
2 May 1999 Jesse Jackson secures freedom for 3 US soldiers captured in Macedonia. Milosevic reportedly gives Jackson a letter calling for a face-to-face meeting with Clinton. Late at night, NATO graphite bombs short-circuit electrical circuits in Serbia. A US F-16 crashes in Serbia.
3 May 1999 Chernomyrdin comes to Washington, meets with President, Gore and advisers. Endorses the idea of enlisting Finnish President Ahtisaari to assist with negotiations. NATO kills at least 17 in attack on civilian vehicles near Pec, in Kosovo. FRY closes Montenegro's port of Bar, provoking fears of impending Serbian coup there.
4 May 1999 Bulgaria authorizes NATO to use its airspace for attacks.
5 May 1999 The first NATO deaths occur when 2 US soldiers are killed in non-combat Apache helicopter accident north of Tirana.
6 May 1999 At the Group of Eight (G8) meeting in Germany, the Russians begin limited cooperation with the allies. From Italy, Rugova calls for a NATO force in Kosovo, and a Serb withdrawal.
7 May 1999 In night of extensive bombing, NATO planes mistakenly target Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, killing 3 and wounding 20. UN Security Council meets to discuss the US's "terrible mistake" and violent demonstrations ensue in China. In a separate incident, a NATO cluster bomb misses an airfield and strikes a market and a hospital near Nis, reportedly killing 15.
10 May 1999 Milosevic announces end to attacks on KLA, claims that some units of the army and police being withdrawn. NATO denies any withdrawal underway. Chinese demonstrations continue.
11 May 1999 Chernomyrdin and Jiang Zemin confer in Beijing, criticize bombing.
14 May 1999 In Korisa, NATO bombs kill as many as 87 Kosovar Albanians after Serb troops use them as human shields.
18 May 1999 In a reference to ground troops, Clinton notes that "we will not...take any option off the table." However later the same day Clinton calls Blair, reportedly angered by continued British public pressure for ground troops. In Helsinki, Ahtisaari and Chernomyrdin meet Talbott in the first of four negotiating sessions.
22 May 1999 NATO mistakenly bombs a KLA position in Kosare, reportedly killing 67.
24 May 1999 NATO aircraft destroy the Serbian power grids. Strikes earlier in the month had shut off the power temporarily.
25 May 1999 NATO votes to increase ground forces in neighboring Macedonia (FYROM) to 48,000. Though the troops are officially labeled peacekeepers, they could be recast as the core of an invasion force.
26 May 1999 KLA launches important offensive to win a supply route into Kosovo. Within three days the effort stalls, drawing NATO air support on Mt. Pastrik.
27 May 1999 In secret Bonn meeting, US Defense Sec. Cohen meets with NATO defense ministers to discuss possible invasion; allies conclude that governments must decide soon whether to assemble ground troops. International War Crimes Tribunal announces indictment of Milosevic and four other FRY and Serbian officials.
28 May 1999 NATO spokesman announces work on Albanian road network. Officials cite humanitarian reasons for the construction, but note the road's "dual-use" potential for carrying NATO ground troops.
30 May 1999 NATO bombs a bridge in Varvarin, reportedly killing 11 civilians.
31 May 1999 A NATO missile goes off-course and strikes a residential neighborhood in Surdulica, killing at least 20.
1 Jun. 1999 Final round of talks between Talbott, Chernomyrdin and Ahtisaari begins. Discussion continues up until negotiators depart for Belgrade two days later. FRY informs Germany of its readiness to accept G8 principles for ending bombing.
3 Jun. 1999 Clinton reportedly on brink of decision regarding the mobilization of ground troops in preparation for an invasion. However, after mediators meet with Milosevic, the outline of a new Kosovo peace deal is announced. Clinton, advisers and allies greet the news cautiously.
7 Jun. 1999 NATO bombing continues as talks falter over details of Serbian withdrawal. Two B-52 bombers come to aid of embattled KLA fighters on Mount Pastrik, supposedly killing hundreds of Serbs -- though that figure is now disputed.
8 Jun. 1999 During G8 talks in Cologne, allies and Russia reach agreement on possible UN resolution to sanction the peace deal.
9 Jun. 1999 After more discussions, NATO and FRY officials finally initial a Military Technical Agreement to govern the Serb withdrawal.
10 Jun. 1999 UN Sec. General Solana requests suspension of NATO bombing, and the Security Council adopts resolution 1244 permitting the deployment of the international civil and military authorities in Kosovo.
12 Jun. 1999 In a move that surprises allied commanders, approximately 200 Russian troops leave Bosnia, travel through Serbia and enter Kosovo before NATO, taking control of Pristina airport.
14 June 1999 Ethnic Albanians beginning flooding back into Kosovo; within three weeks over 600,000 will return in one of the most rapid refugee returns in history. As many as 200,000 Serbs and Roma begin moving toward Serbia and Montenegro to escape retribution.
18 Jun. 1999 After a week of tension, confusion and discussions, Albright, Cohen and Russians reach preliminary agreement over Russian participation in peacekeeping force. In all, over 20,000 international troops have moved into Kosovo.
20 Jun. 1999 Serbs complete withdrawal from Kosovo, and Secretary General Solana formally ends NATO's bombing campaign.
21 Jun. 1999 Under NATO pressure, KLA agrees to disarm.
4 Jul. 1999 Discussions with Russians continue, and conclude the following day with resolution of final details concerning Russian participation.
23 Jul. 1999 In a sign that tensions will continue, 14 Kosovo Serb farmers are killed in their fields near Lipljan.
29 Jul. 1999 US Secretary of State Albright visits Kosovo, meets with KFOR Commander Michael Jackson and Bernard Kouchner.
20 Sept. 1999 KFOR certifies that the KLA has completed demilitarization.

Selected List of Sources for this Chronology:

UK Ministry of Defence, "Kosovo: Chronology Mar. 1998-Mar. 1999" (1999) United States Department of State, "Kosovo Chronology" (21 May 1999)
United States Department of State, "Erasing History" (May 1999)
KFOROnline, "Chronology of Events [9 June - 8 Oct. 1999]"
United States National Security Council, "Chronology: Pres. Clinton's Involvement" (1999)
USNR Capt. R.C. Rigazio, ed. "Balkans Chronology" [Prepared for Naval Reserve Naval War College Support Unit] (1999)
Human Rights Watch, "Kosovo War Crimes Chronology" (1998)
UNHCR, "Kosovo: One Last Chance" Refugees Magazine 116 (1999)
NATO Daily Briefings
US Department of Defense Briefings

Other Sources:

Associated Press, "Chronology of Events [Clinton Impeachment]" (1999)
AllPolitics [CNN/Time/CQ] "A Chronology: Key Moments In The Clinton-Lewinsky Saga"
Washington Post, "Timeline: A Presidential Affair" (1999)
ABCNews, "Lewinsky Timeline" [through President's acquittal] (1999)
US Dept. of State, "Crisis With Iraq: Chronology" (1999)
Washington Post, "Iraq Time Line" (1998)

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