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1954

Brown v. Board of Education- On May 17, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rules that segregated educational facilities are unequal and, as such, violate the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution. The court overturns its earlier decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which allowed for "separate but equal" public facilities. The Brownruling mandates desegregation of public schools and begins the process of integration, opening the door for affirmative action policies.

1974

The California State Legislature passes a resolution ordering the University of California to match the racial composition of its student body to that of each year's graduating high school class in the state. The legislature also mandates that this process be completed by 1980 (though the schools never reach the goal). The resolution forces most UC schools to consider race in admissions.

DeFunis v. Odegaard - On April 23, in its first ruling on affirmative action in higher education, the U.S. Supreme Court refuses to decide whether the constitution allows professional schools to give preference to racial minorities in admissions. The court rules 5 to 4 that the case of Marco DeFunis Jr. is no longer valid because he will graduate from Washington University law school in June. DeFunis alleged that the University of Washington's admissions program denied his application because he is white.


1978

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke - On June 28, the U.S. Supreme Court strikes down a UC Davis Medical School policy that reserves a fixed number of spots for minority applicants, but rules that race can be considered in college admissions to improve racial diversity, as long as quotas aren't used. The Court orders the university to admit Allan P. Bakke, a 38-year-old white applicant whose application was denied despite having higher admission test scores than many of the minority students admitted to the program. The case is the first in a series of successful challenges to affirmative action programs over the next two decades. The ruling sets up a paradox for University of California schools, which are under a state mandate to match the racial composition of their student bodies to that of the state's high school graduates.

1988

On November 17, the U.S Department of Education announces it is investigating admissions procedures at UC Berkeley, UCLA and Harvard. The probe focuses on complaints of limits on admissions of Asian students. Critics of the universities base their complaints mainly on statistics, such as a sharp drop in the percentage of Asian admissions at UC Berkeley early in the decade, even though a higher percentage of Asians met UC's eligibility requirements than applicants from any other racial or ethnic group.

1989

On April 7, UC Berkeley Chancellor Ira Michael Heyman apologizes for admissions policies that caused a decline in Asian undergraduate enrollment. Heyman does not admit the guidelines were put in place to intentionally limit Asian admissions, but promises to change the policies.

On May 24, UC Berkeley announces changes to its admissions policy that will put more emphasis on high academic performance. The change is largely in response to earlier complaints that the university put too much emphasis on extracurricular activities and other subjective criteria in an attempt to limit admissions of Asian students. The school also announces that it will make its admissions policy public for the first time.


1990

On October 1, the U.S. Department of Education announces that the UCLA graduate department of mathematics discriminated against Asian students in 1987 and 1988, but clears 75 other departments of similar charges. UCLA officials deny the allegations, saying that the government only relied on statistics and failed to take into account the weight they place on personal recommendations and the prestige of applicants' undergraduate schools.

1991

For the first time in the history of UC Berkeley, Asian students outnumber white students in the freshman class. 35 percent of the incoming students are Asian, while 30 percent are white.

1992

On September 29, the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights releases findings of its investigation into admissions policies at UC Berkeley. The department says that Berkeley's Boalt Hall School of Law shielded minority students from competition with other applicants. The investigation reveals that, from 1988 to 1990, the school divided applicants into ethnic groups and compared them only to other applicants within that group in order to meet affirmative action quotas. The school denies any wrongdoing, but agrees not to separate applicants based on race or ethnicity in the future. The Department of Education also announces that it found no wrongdoing at Harvard.

1995

On July 20, after 12 hours of heated debate, the University of California Board of Regents votes 15-10 to end race-based preferences in admissions, hiring and contracting. California Governor and board president Pete Wilson, who has not attended a meeting since 1992, shows up to cast an affirmative vote. At the time, Wilson is making a run for president of the United States.

1996

Hopwood v. Texas - On March 19, the Fifth Circuit Court of appeals nullifies a University of Texas Law School admissions policy that seeks out certain percentages of black and Latino students. Two of the three judges condemn the idea of using racial classifications to create a diverse student body, further eroding the allowable motivations for race-based preferences.

On March 20, the U.S. Department of Education announces that it found no discrimination against white students in its seven-year investigation of admissions practices at UC Berkeley. The agency also says that it found no evidence of a decline in academic standards at the school due to affirmative action. In the fall of 1993 - the year studied in the probe - investigators found that only 3 percent of the freshman class were admitted without meeting the academic and other standards outlined in UC policy. Critics of affirmative action, including California Governor Pete Wilson, dismiss the findings as biased.

On Novemer 5, California voters pass Proposition 209, banning affirmative action in government employment and public college admissions. Along with the board of regents earlier decision, Proposition 209 effectively ends all race-based admissions practices at University of California schools.


1997

Supreme Court refuses to hear Hopwood.

On July 14, the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights confirms it is investigating possible discrimination in admissions against minorities at the University of California's three law schools. Investigators base their probe on a complaint that the schools admitted white students in higher proportions than blacks or Latinos after the University's board of regents banned affirmative action policies. The complaint, filed by several civil rights groups representing minorities, alleges that, in the fall of 1996, Berkeley's Boalt Hall law school admitted one in four white applicants while accepting only one in 10 Latinos and one in 20 blacks. The groups also say the school's admissions policies give extra weight to students who attended elite Eastern colleges but ignore grades from predominantly black and Latino schools.

On October 15, the Center for Individual Rights files a lawsuit on behalf of two white students denied admission to the University of Michigan undergraduate program. The suit alleges that the University has a dual admissions standard and holds white applicants to higher standards for grade point average and test scores than it does for minority applicants.

On December 2, the Center for Individual Rights files a class action lawsuit on behalf of several white students denied admission to the University of Michigan law school. The basis for the suit is similar to earlier action brought by CIR in October.


1998

In its first year without affirmative action in undergraduate admissions, UC Berkeley admits its least diverse freshman class in over 17 years, accepting 56 percent fewer African Americans and 49 percent fewer Latinos than in 1997.

1999

On February 2, five civil rights organizations file a class-action lawsuit on behalf of more than 750 black, Latino and Filipino-American students against UC Berkeley. The suit, filed in federal court, alleges that Berkeley's undergraduate admissions guidelines discriminate against minority students, pointing to the school's policy of giving applicants bonus grade points for advanced placement (AP) classes and its heavy reliance on the SAT test. The lawyers point out that few minority students have access to AP classes and say that high SAT scores are a better reflection of family income than of potential to succeed in college. The school counters that it now relies less on the SAT than at any time since standardized tests were introduced and says that giving credit for AP classes is the only way it can differentiate between all of the applicants with 4.0 grade point averages. In 1998, more than 14,000 applicants for 8,400 spots in the freshman class at Berkeley had 4.0 averages

On July 27, the American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California files a lawsuit against the State of California alleging discrimination against students and schools in minority and low-income neighborhoods. The suit alleges these schools offer far fewer advanced placement (AP) courses than schools in more affluent areas. Because many of the best colleges and universities give bonus grade points for AP classes, the suit says the state is unfairly preparing middle and upper class student for college while ignoring the needs of poor students. Sate officials have no comment.

On August 10, The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals rules that a group of minority students at the University of Michigan can intervene as co-defendants in the lawsuit filed by the Center for Individual Rights against the University. The students feel that the University will not adequately defend their interests in the lawsuits, and hope to defend affirmative action in admissions decisions at the school. The case has not yet gone to trial.



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