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u.s. legislation on pakistan (1990-2004)

August 1990: Pressler Amendment Sanctions

The 1985 Pressler Amendment authorized banning most military and economic assistance to Pakistan if an annual presidential determination that Pakistan did not possess a nuclear device was not given. In 1990, President George H.W. Bush was the first to withhold such a determination.

May 1998: Pakistani Nuclear Test Sanctions

After Pakistan's May 1998 nuclear tests, President Bill Clinton imposed additional sanctions on Pakistan, invoking the 1994 Glenn Amendment, which authorizes sanctions on nonnuclear weapon states that detonate nuclear explosions, and the Symington Amendment, which prohibits military and economic assistance to any country that delivers and/or receives nuclear assistance.

October 1999: "Democracy Sanctions"

After Musharraf's October 12, 1999, coup, Congress invoked Section 508 of the Foreign Assistance Act, prohibiting all U.S. economic and military aid toward Pakistan.

Sep./Oct. 2001: Sanctions lifted after 9/11

The Glenn, Symington, and Pressler sanctions were waived by President George W. Bush under the authority given him by an earlier piece of legislation known as Brownback II. Congress voted to allow President Bush to waive the "democracy sanctions" imposed on Pakistan through September 30, 2003. These democracy sanctions have since been waived annually.

December 2004: Ackerman Amendment

This amendment to the Intelligence Authorization Act requires the CIA, over a five-year period, to make annual reports to Congress about Pakistan's nuclear activities, democratic development, and counterterror efforts.

Source: "U.S.-Pakistan Engagement: The War on Terrorism and Beyond" by Touqir Hussain, Special Report No. 145, July 2005. Reprinted with permission.

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posted oct. 3, 2006

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