ART (assisted reproductive technology)|
Fertility procedures and treatments involving the handling of human eggs and
sperm for the purpose of helping women become pregnant.
A procedure that places sperm in a woman's reproductive tract without
A procedure still in the testing stage, where blastocysts (early stage embryos)
are left longer in a culture to grow; therefore, allowing for only the best
ones to be selected based on their growth and development in the lab. By
implanting only two or three of the best blastocyts, this procedure minimizes
multiple birth rates.
An individual grown from a single somatic cell of its parent and genetically
identical to it.
Procedure based on nuclear transfer, which involves the use of two cells. The
recipient cell is normally an unfertilized egg. The donor cell is the one to be
copied. The recipient cell's DNA is removed, then the donor cell, complete with
its nucleus, is fused with the recipient egg. Some fused cells start to develop
like a normal embryo and produce offspring if implanted into the uterus of a
A technique for freezing tissues or cells to preserve for use at a later
Donor egg, embryo or sperm
Provided for ART procedures or artificial insemination; donors usually receive
a fee and relinquish rights to any resulting children.
A fertilized egg that has undergone one or more divisions.
A reproductive cell, either a sperm or egg.
Woman who carries an embryo that was formed from the egg of another woman; the
gestational carrier is expected to return the infant to its genetic parents.
Also known as surrogate mother.
GIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer)
Procedure that involves removing eggs from the ovary, combing them with sperm
and using a laparoscope to assist in placing the unfertilized eggs and sperm in
the woman's fallopian tube through a small incision in the abdomen.
ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection)
Procedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg; mainly used
for male infertility problems.
IVF (in vitro fertilization)
Procedure that involves removing eggs from the ovaries and fertilizing them
outside of the woman's body. The resulting embryos are then transferred into
the woman's uterus through the cervix.
Multifetal pregnancy reduction
Procedure used to decrease the number of fetuses a woman carries and improve
the survival chances of the remaining fetuses. Some pregnancy reductions occur
PDI (preimplantation genetic testing)
Procedure that allows the embryo to be tested for chromosomal abnormalities. A single cell is removed from a developing embryo and tested. Any abnormal
embryos can be removed and only healthly ones selected and implanted in the
ZIFT (zygote intrafallopian transfer)
Procedure in which eggs are collected from the ovaries and fertilized outside
of the body. A laparoscope is used to assist in placing the fertilized egg
(zygote) into the woman's fallopian tube through small incision in the
Sources: 1996 ART National Report prepared by the Center for Disease Control,
Merriam Webster's Medical Dictionary, and Beyond Second Opinions,
by Judith Steinberg Turiel
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