Algeria, Argentina. Brazil, Iraq, Romania, South Africa: All were known or suspected to have secret nuclear weapons programs in the past, but recently abandoned these efforts by opening their nuclear facilities to international and/or regional inspection agencies, joining the NPT, and/or by terminating all research on nuclear arms. South Africa dismantled its program in the early 1990s and signed the NPT in 1991; the IAEA has verified complete dismantlement of all nuclear devices. Argentina and Brazil have both signed and ratified
the Treaty of Tlatelolco and agreed to implement a system of comprehensive IAEA and bilateral inspections. On February 10, 1995, Argentina acceded to the NPT. Algeria acceded to the NPT in January 1995. Iraq's extensive nuclear program was dismantled by UN inspectors and is subject to special UN-mandated long-term monitoring. Romania, under the Ceausescu regime, apparently pursued a nuclear-weapons development program, which included experimental plutonium extraction not subject to IAEA monitoring. After Ceausescu's overthrow in 1989, the Iliescu government terminated the program.
It has been reported that Saudi Arabia collaborated with Iraq in pursuing nuclear weapons during the 1980s, but this report has not been confirmed. Saudi Arabia joined the NPT in 1988. (See p. 127, note 4, for additional details.)
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